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Pantaskah Kita Mengeluh ?

Ketika kita mengeluh : “Ah mana mungkin.....”Allah menjawab : “Jika AKU menghendaki,cukup Ku berkata “Jadi”,maka jadilah (QS. Yasin ; 82)

Ketika kita mengeluh : “Capek banget gw....”Allah menjawab : “...dan KAMI jadikan tidurmu untuk istirahat.” (QS.An-Naba :9)

Ketika kita mengeluh : “Berat banget yah, gak sanggup rasanya...”Allah menjawab : “AKU tidak membebani seseorang, melainkan sesuai kesanggupan.” (QS. Al-Baqarah : 286)

Ketika kita mengeluh : “Stressss nih...Panik...”Allah menjawab : “Hanya dengan mengingatku hati akan menjadi tenang”. (QS.Ar-Ro’d :28)

Ketika kita mengeluh : “Yaaaahh... ini mah semua bakal sia-sia..”Allah menjawab :”Siapa yang mengerjakan kebaikan sebesar biji dzarah sekalipun,niscaya ia akan melihat balasannya”. (QS. Al-Zalzalah :7)

Ketika kita mengeluh : “Gile aje..gw sendirian..gak ada seorangpun yang mau bantuin...”Allah menjawab : “Berdoalah (mintalah) kepadaKU,niscaya Aku kabulkan untukmu”. (QS. Al-Mukmin :60)

Ketika kita mengeluh : “ Duh..sedih banget deh gw...”Allah menjawab : “La Tahzan, Innallaha Ma’ana. Janganlah kamu berduka cita, sesungguhnya Allah beserta kita:. (QS. At-Taubah :40)

kita semua yg mulai galau atas perhatian Allah yg serasa jauh dari kita padahal sebaliknya Allah dekat selalu (QS. Al-Baqarah 186)..

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Manajemen Tata Lingkungan Sekolah yang Kondusif

BAB I
PENDAHULUAN

1.1 Latar Belakang
Suatu inovasi tentang sekolah sebagai tempat terbaik untuk belajar merujuk pada penciptaan sekolah hijau yaitu sekolah sebagai tempat yang asri dan menyenangkan yang berdampak pada peningkatan gairah belajar siswa, menciptakan iklim akademis yang kondusif dan meningkatkan citra sekolah. Coba kita rasakan perbedaannya tinggal di kampus yang gersang, kering tanpa pepohonan, berdebu dan tak sedikitpun asesoris keindahan di dalamnya dengan berada pada situasi sekolah yang rindang, tumbuh pepohonan yang melindungi dan tertata estetik ditambah aroma kesegaran dari bunga-bunga alam yang mempesona serta lingkungan yang tertata apik dan rapih membuat orang segan dan tak rela membuang sampah permen sekalipun. Tentu situasi yang kedua jauh membuat orang betah tinggal berlama-lama dan kondisi ini sangat mendukung bagi berkembangnya situasi belajar mengajar yang diinginkan.
Tampilan fisik sekolah ditata secara ekologis sehingga menjadi wahana pembelajaran bagi seluruh warga sekolah untuk bersikap arif dan berprilaku ramah lingkungan. Program pendidikan dikemas secara partisipatif penuh, percaya pada kekuatan kelompok, mengaktifkan dan menyeimbangkan feeling, acting, dan thinking, sehingga tiap individu bisa merasakan nilai keagungan inisiasinya. Bahwa sebenarnya memahami makna green school yang seharusnya adalah “berbuat untuk menciptakan kualitas lingkungan sekolah yang kondusif, ekologis, lestari secara nyata dan berkelanjutan, tentunya dengan cara-cara yang simpatik, kreatif, inovatif dengan menganut nilai-nilai dan kearifan budaya lokal”.(Sugeng Paryadi, 2008).


1.2 Rumusan Masalah
1. Apa yang dimaksud manajemen?
2. Apa saja prinsip-prinsip tata sekolah yang baik?
3. Bagaimana manajemen tata lingkungan sekolah yang kondusif?

1.3 Tujuan
1. Mengetahui pengertian dari manajemen
2. Mengetahui prinsip-prinsip tata sekolah yang baik
3. Mengetahui bagaimana manajemen tata lingkungan sekolah yang kondusif



BAB II
PEMBAHASAN

2.1 Pengertian Manajemen

Setiap ahli memberi pandangan yang berbeda tentang batasan manajemen, karena itu tidak mudah memberi arti universal yang dapat diterima semua orang. Namun demikian dari pikiran-pikiran ahli tentang definisi manajemen kebanyakan menyatakan bahwa manajemen merupakan suatu proses tertentu yang menggunakan kemampuan atau keahlian untuk mencapai suatu tujuan yang di dalam pelaksanaannya dapat mengikuti alur keilmuan secara ilmiah dan dapat pula menonjolkan kekhasan atau gaya manajer dalam mendayagunakan kemampuan orang lain.
Berikut ini merupakan definisi manajemen dari beberapa ahli yang mencerminkan ketiga focus tersebut :
 Encyclopedia of the social science (1957) management may be defined as the process by which the execution of a given purpose is put into operation and supervised.
 Stoner (1992:8) manajemen merupakan proses perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pengarahan, dan pengawasan usaha-usaha para anggota organisasi dan penggunaan sumber daya organisasi lainnya agar mencapai tujuan organisasi yang telah ditetapkan.
 Management is a process of planning, organizing, directing and monitoring the efforts of members of the organization and use of other organizational resources to realize predetermined organizational goal.
 Management is the art and science of organizing and directing human effort applied to control the forses utilize the materials of nature for the benefit of man.
Dengan demikian manajemen merupakan kemampuan dan keterampilan khusus yang dimiliki oleh seseorang untuk melakukan suatu kegiatan baik secara perorangan ataupun bersama orang lain atau melalui orang lain dalam upaya mencapai tujuan organisasi secara produktif.

2.2 Prinsip-prinsip Tata Sekolah yang Baik

Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah ditujukan untuk meningkatkan kinerja sekolah melalui pemberian wewenang dan tanggungjawab yang lebih besar kepada sekolah yang dilaksanakan berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip tata kelola sekolah yang baik yaitu partisipasi, transparansi, dan akuntabilitas. Peningkatan kinerja sekolah yang dimaksud meliputi peningkatan kualitas, efektifitas, produktifitas, dan inovasi pendidikan.
a. Peningkatan Partisipasi
Partisipasi adalah proses dimana stakeholders (warga sekolah dan masyarakat) terlibat aktif baik secara individual maupun kolektif, secara langsung maupun tidak langsung, dalam pengambilan keputusan, pembuatan kebijakan, perencanaan, pelaksanaan, pengawasan/pengevaluasian pendidikan sekolah.
Peningkatan partisipasi yang dimaksud adalah penciptaan lingkungan yang terbuka dan demokratis, dimana warga sekolah (guru, siswa, karyawan) dan masyarakat (orangtua siswa, tokoh masyarakat, ilmuwan, usahawan, dan sebagainya) didorong untuk terlibat secara langsung dalam penyelenggaraan pendidikan, mulai dari pengambilan keputusan, pelaksanaan, dan evaluasi pendidikan. Hal ini dilandasi oleh keyakinan bahwa jika seseorang dilibatkan dalam penyelenggaraan pendidikan, maka yang bersangkutan akan mempunyai “rasa memiliki” terhadap sekolah, sehingga yang bersangkutan juga akan bertanggungjawab dan berdedikasi sepenuhnya untuk mencapai tujuan sekolah. Singkatnya, makin besar tingkat partisipasi, makin besar pula rasa memiliki, makin besar rasa memiliki, makin besar pula rasa tanggungjawab, dan makin besar rasa tanggungjawab, makin besar pula dedikasinya. Tentu saja melibatkan warga sekolah dalam penyelenggaraan sekolah harus mempertimbangkan keahlian, batas kewenangan, dan relevansinya dengan tujuan partisipasi.
Peningkatan partisipasi dalam penyelenggaraan sekolah mempunyai beberapa tujuan yang berguna untuk menyukseskan pelaksanaan MBS. Tujuan dari peningkatan partisipasi dalam pelaksanaan MBS adalah sebagai berikut :
1. Meningkatkan dedikasi/kontribusi stakeholders terhadap penyelenggaraan pendidikan di sekolah, baik dalam bentuk jasa (pemikiran, keterampilan), moral, financial, dan material/barang;
2. Menggunakan kemampuan yang ada pada stakeholders bagi pendidikan untuk mewujudkan tujuan pendidikan nasional;
3. Meningkatkan peran stakeholders dalam penyelenggaraan pendidikan sekolah, baik sebagai advisor, supporter, mediator, controller, resource linker, and education provider.
4. Menjamin agar setiap keputusan dan kebijakan yang diambil benar-benar mencerminkan aspirasi stakeholders dan menjadikan aspirasi stakeholders sebagai panglima bagi penyelenggaraan pendidikan di sekolah (Depdiknas, 2006 : 13).

b. Peningkatan Transparansi

Dalam ruang lingkup sekolah, transparansi adalah keadaan dimana setiap orang yang terkait dengan kepentingan pendidikan dapat mengetahui proses dan hasil pengambilan keputusan dan kebijakan sekolah. Keterbukaan/transparansi merupakan salah satu tujuan yang ingin dicapai melalui MBS. Keterbukaan/transaransi ini ditunjukkan dalam semua kegiatan yang dilakukan sekolah yang meliputi pengambilan keputusan, perencanaan dan pelaksanaan kegiatan, penggunaan uang, dan sebagainya.
Dengan kata lain, transparansi merupakan sebuah sistem yang memungkinkan terselenggaranya komunikasi internal dan eksternal dalam dunia pendidikan. Transparansi dibangun atas dasar kebebasan arus informasi yang secara langsung dapat diterima oleh stakeholders pendidikan. Kebebasan informasi ini harus dapat dipahami dan dimonitor sehingga penggunaannya benar-benar ditujukan untuk pencapaian tujuan. Dalam beberapa tulisan mengenai MBS, para pengamat pendidikan beranggapan bahwa masalah transparasi merupakan isu kunci keberhasilan MBS dalam rangka peningkatan mutu pendidikan. Para pengamat pendidikan beranggapan bahwa selama ini, terutama sebelum era desentralisasi dan reformasi, pengelolaan pendidikan di banyak sekolah sangat tertutup bagi pihak luar. Masyarakat, orangtua murid dan sebagian besar guru tidak banyak mengetahui seluk beluk pengelolaan pendidikan di sekolah, tidak mengetahui pendapatan dan belanja sekolah, tidak dilibatkan di dalam mengevaluasi kekuatan dan kelemahan kinerja sekolah dan sebagainya.
Pengelolaan yang tidak transparan berdampak negatif bagi pengembangan sekolah karena masyarakat dan orangtua murid akan meragukan apakah kalau mereka diminta untuk ikut memikirkan kekurangan pendanaan pendidikan, sumbangan yang mereka berikan akan benar-benar dimanfaatkan bagi kepentingan pendidikan atau akan terjadi penyimpangan yang tidak diharapkan.

c. Peningkatan Akuntabilitas
Akuntabilitas adalah kewajiban untuk memberikan pertanggungjawaban atau untuk menjawab dan menerangkan kinerja dan tindakan penyelenggaraan organisasi kepada pihak yang memiliki hak atau wewenang untuk meminta keterangan atau pertanggungjawaban.
Dengan demikian, akuntabilitas adalah bentuk pertanggungjawaban yang harus dilakukan sekolah terhadap keberhasilan program yang telah dilaksanakan. Akuntabilitas ini berbentuk laporan prestasi yang dicapai dan dilaporkan kepada pemerintah, orangtua siswa, dan masyarakat. Berdasarkan laporan hasil program ini, pemerintah dapat menilai apakah program MBS telah mencapai tujuan yang dikehendaki atau tidak. Jika berhasil, maka pemerintah perlu memberikan penghargaan kepada sekolah yang bersangkutan, sehingga menjadi faktor pendorong untuk terus meningkatkan kinerjanya di masa yang akan datang. Sebaliknya jika program tidak berhasil, maka pemerintah perlu memberikan teguran sebagai hukuman atas kinerjanya yang dianggap tidak memenuhi syarat.
Pada dasarnya, pengertian akuntabilitas yang diberikan oleh Slamet tidak hanya berupa pertanggungjawaban administratif keuangan saja, tetapi mencakup pula penggunaan/pemanfaatan, dan hasil kinerjanya. Sebagai contoh kalau sekolah membeli buku pelajaran, tidak cukup hanya menunjukkan bukti kwitansi pembelian dan tersedianya buku yang dibeli. Akuntabilitas mencakup harga buku yang wajar, kualitas buku yang dibeli, penggunaan buku secara efektif dan hasil belajar siswa.
Seperti telah dijelaskan sebelumnya bahwa partisipasi, transparansi, akuntabilitas adalah sebuah kesatuan yang saling berkaitan. Peningkatan partisipasi harus diikuti peningkatan transparansi dan kemudian akan diikuti peningkatan akuntabilitas yang mempengaruhi tujuan.
Tujuan utama akuntabilitas adalah untuk mendorong terciptanya akuntabilitas kinerja sekolah sebagai salah satu prasyarat untuk terciptanya sekolah yang baik dan dapat dipercaya. Penyelenggara sekolah harus memahami bahwa mereka harus mempertanggungjawabkan hasil kerja kepada publik. Selain itu, tujuan akuntabilitas adalah untuk menilai kinerja sekolah dan kepuasan publik terhadap pelayanan pendidikan yang diselenggarakan oleh sekolah, untuk mengikutsertakan publik dalam pengawasan pelayanan pendidikan, dan untuk mempertanggungjawabkan komitmen pendidikan kepada publik (Depdiknas dalam Panduan Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah).

2.3 Manajemen Tata Lingkungan yang Kondusif

Dalam analisis strategi lingkungan sekolah/madrasah yang kondusif, hal-hal yang perlu dicermati dan ditelaah oleh penyusun rencana kerja sekolah/madrasah adalah lingkungan strategis sekolah/madrasah, yang meliputi lingkungan sosial ekonomi baik masyarakat sekitar sekolah/madrasah maupun orangtua siswa di sekolah/madrasah tersebut, budaya masyarakat, regulasi pemerintah daerah yang memiliki dampak secara langsung maupun tidak langsung dalam mempengaruhi perkembangan dan peningkatan mutu sekolah/madrasah. Karena itu, setelah menelaah analisis kondisi lingkungan pada masing-masing sekolah/madrasah perlu dijabarkan hal-hal dan implikasinya bagi perkembangan sekolah/madrasah.

2.3.1 Manajemen Tata Lingkungan Sekolah

Salah satu strategi yang dapat diterapkan dalam tata lingkungan disekolah adalah Pendidikan Lingkungan Hidup (PLH). Untuk menciptakan lingkungan sekolah yang baik maka sekolah harus membuat manajemen lingkungan sekolah berbasis pendidikan lingkungan hidup. Pendidikan lingkungan hidup (PLH) ini dapat diterapkan disekolah dalam kurikulum pelajaran. Sehingga lebih terintegrasi dan bisa dijalankan dan dievaluasi. Sistem/standar pengelolaan PLH pada pendidikan dasar dan menengah pada hakekatnya belum ada. Hal ini dapat diketahui berdasarkan hasil observasi langsung pada sekolah, implementasi PLH di sekolah dapat dibuat untuk membentuk pola pengembangan PLH pada pendidikan dasar dan menengah dalam mewujudkan sekolah berbudaya lingkungan. Hal ini dapat dilakukan melalui upaya-upaya sebagai berikut berikut : Manajemen PLH di sekolah dapat dilakukan dengan mengacu pada prinsip dan elemen ISO 14.001 yang meliputi Plan, Do, Check, dan Action. Hal ini juga sejalan dengan peningkatan pengelolaan sekolah (School Based Manajemen) dalam meningkatkan mutu pengelolaan sekolah secara mandiri. Sedangkan prinsip dan elemen pelaksanaan pengelolaan PLH di sekolah dapat dilakukan dengan cara-cara sebagai berikut:
1. Kebijakan PLH di sekolah
Menurut SML – ISO 14001, kebijakan lingkungan adalah pernyataan oleh organisasi tentang keinginan dan prinsip-prinsipnya berkaitan dengan kinerja lingkungan secara keseluruhan yang memberikan kerangka untuk tindakan dan untuk penentuan sasaran dan target (objectives and targets). Manjemen puncak, dalam hal ini kepala sekolah, menetapkan kebijakan pendidikan lingkungan hidup sekolah, struktur dan tanggung jawab.
2. Perencanaan (plan)
Dalam melakukan perencanaan pengelolaan lingkungan di sekolah diperlukan identifikasi aspek lingkungan, identifikasi peraturan perundang-undangan, penetapan tujuan dan sasaran lingkungan sekolah serta penetapan program lingkungan untuk pencapaiannya.
3. Pelaksanaan (do)
Untuk menerapkan (do) PLH pada sistem ini, organisasi mengembangkan kemampuan dan mekanisme yang diperlukan untuk mencapai kebijakan, tujuan, dan sasaran PLH di sekolah. Mekanisme prinsip penerapan yang dibangun seperti disyaratkan, terdiri dari tujuh elemen, yaitu: (1) struktur dan tanggungjawab; (2) pelatihan, kepedulian dan kompetensi, (3) komunikasi; (4) dokumentasi dan pengendaliannya; (5) kesiagaan dan tanggap darurat.
4. Pemeriksaan dan Tindakan Perbaikan
Pemeriksaan dan tindakan koreksi dilaksanakan oleh organisasi untuk mengukur, memantau dan mengevaluasi kinerja lingkungan sekolah. Kinerja PLH di sekolah dapat diukur melalui pengintegrasian materi lingkungan hidup dalam kegiatan:
a. Kurikulum
Pengintegrasian PLH dalam kegiatan kurikuler mempunyai arti bahwa PLH tidak merupakan suatu mata pelajaran/bidang keahlian baru tetapi materi lingkungan hidup terintegrasi ke dalam mata pelajaran atau program yang relevan atau sesuai. Cara mengintegrasikan PLH dalam kegiatan kurikuler dimulai dari menganalisis kemampuan/sub kemampuan setiap bidang keahlian/program keahlian sampai menghasilkan suatu materi kejuruan yang berkaitan dengan materi lingkungan hidup. Kegiatan ini dilakukan agar siswa mempunyai kompetensi atau sikap profesional sesuai bidang keahlian yang dimilikinya dan sejalan dengan tuntutan pembangunan yang berkelanjutan.
b. Ekstrakurikuler
Kegiatan ekstrakurikuler seperti 7 K yang mencakup keamanan, ketertiban, kebersihan, keindahan, kekeluargaan, kerindangan, dan kesehatan merupakan suatu wadah yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk menyampaikan materi lingkungan kepada siswa dalam kegiatan konkret. Kegiatan konkret tersebut dapat dilakukan pada perayaan hari internasional, nasional, dan lokal dengan membahas masalah lingkungan global, nasional dan lokal yang sedang terjadi, gerakan kebersihan lingkungan sekolah, pasar, perumahan, gerakan penggunaan sepeda, jalan kaki, bus umum, lomba karya ilmia, kampanye lingkungan, dan lain sebagainya sesuai kebutuhan dan kondisi lingkungan sekolah dan masyarakat. Pelaksanaan pengintegrasian materi lingkungan hidup pada kegiatan ektrakurikuler dapat memilih metode dan media sesuai dengan kondisi lapangan. Kegiatan ini diarahkan untuk membentuk sikap dan perilaku siswa dalam mewujudkan pembangunan yang berkelanjutan.
c. Penampilan Sekolah
Dalam mewujudkan sekolah berbudaya lingkungan (sekolah yang menanamkan nilai-nilai lingkungan hidup kepada seluruh warga dan masyarakat sekitarnya) dapat dikembangkan untuk mengantisipasi berbagai macam persoalan lingkungan, khususnya kegiatan yang memiliki dampak atau akibat aktivitas kegiatan belajar mengajar yang ada di sekolah. Penampilan sekolah berbudaya lingkungan secara umum dapat dinilai dari adanya : 1) Penerapan hemat energi 2) Manajemen/ pengelolaan pemisahan sampah 3) Pengelolaan air bersih dan kotor 4) Pengelolaan emisi/ gas buang 5) Penghijauan 6) dan lain-lain.
d. Sikap dan perilaku warga sekolah
Sikap dan perilaku warga sekolah terhadap lingkungan hidup merupakan nilai yang paling penting dalam mewujudkan Sekolah Berbudaya Lingkungan (SBL). Pelaksanaan PLH di sekolah mempunyai sasaran meningkatkan kepedulian seluruh warga sekolah (kepala dan wakil sekolah, tenaga administrasi, guru, dan siswa) terhadap lingkungan. Standar penilaian dapat dibuat sesuai kebutuhan sekolah. Sebagai contoh untuk menilai sikap dan perilaku siswa dengan kategori baik atau jelek dapat dilihat dari penampilan kelasnya. Jika kelas siswa kelihatan kotor, apakah akibat banyak kertas berserakan dan banyak coretan di dinding, kelasnya dapat dinilai bahwa siswa tersebut belum memiliki kepedulian terhadap lingkungan. Demikian juga bagi guru, tenaga administrasi, dan kepala sekolah dapat dinilai dari ruang kerja masing-masing unit. Sedangkan mengukur keberhasilan (sikap dan perilaku) sekolah dalam mewujudkan SBL dapat dinilai seluruh unsur (warga) yang ada di sekolah.
5. Tinjauan Ulang Manajemen
Hasil dari proses pemeriksaan dan tindakan koreksi tersebut dijadikan masukan bagi manajemen dalam menerapkan prinsip pengkajian dan penyempurnaan, yaitu berupa kajian ulang manajemen yang dilaksanakan organisasi setiap enam bulan/satu tahun sekali, atau bila dianggap perlu.
Berikut ini adalah gambaran pengelolaan PLH. Pengolahan lingkungan sekolah dapat dilakukan melalui peningkatan pengetahuan dan kemampuan siswa dalam pengelolaan air, sampah, energi dan halaman sekolah dan tata ruang kelas.
1. Pengelolaan Air di Sekolah
Kita dapat membayangkan apabila di sekolah kekurangan air bersih! Tentunya sekolah menjadi kotor karena jarang atau tidak pernah dibersihkan, kamar mandi mengeluarkan bau yang tidak sedap, dan merasa tidak nyaman atau kesulitan bila kita hendak ke WC. Akibatnya lingkungan sekolah menjadi tidak sehat sehingga dapat mengganggu kenyamanan belajar.
Ketersediaan air bersih disekolah sangat diperlukan dalam jumlah yang relatif banyak. Hal ini mengingat jumlah warga sekolah yang terdiri dari siswa, guru, dan karyawan dapat mencapai ratusan orang. Sehinga kebutuhan air bersih akan lebih banyak lagi. Jenis kebutuhan air di sekolah adalah untuk minum, membersihkan lantai, membersihkan WC, mencuci peralatan laboratorium dan menyiram tanaman.
Sumber air bersih yang digunakan bagi pemenuhan kebutuhan warga sekolah dapat berasal dari air PDAM, sumur gali, sumur pompa, atau sumber mata air yang dialirkan bagi sekolah-sekolah yang terletak di pegunungan. Untuk mengurangi keterbatasan air bersih disekolah, dapat dilakukan dengan upaya penghematan melalui penentuan prioritas. Misalnya, air bersih hanya digunakan untuk minum dan mengisi bak mandi, sedangkan untuk keperluan lainnya seperti membersihkan WC, membersihkan lantai dan menyiram tanaman gunakanlah air yang berasal dari bak-bak penampungan air hujan.
Karena itu sekolah perlu menyediakan bak-bak penampungan air hujan, baik berupa kolam maupun sumur-sumur resapan. Sumber air yang mengisi kolam maupun sumur resapan sebaiknya berasal dari air hujan yang jatuh dari atap bangunan sekolah atau dari air bekas wudhu dan cuci tangan. Kemudian dialirkan melalui saluran pipa-pipa yang menuju kolam maupun sumur resapan, sehingga airnya masih bersih belum bercampur lumpur.
Sekolah-sekolah yang berada di negara-negara maju umumnya sudah memiliki teknologi pengelolaan air limbah. Sehingga air bersih yang tersedia untuk memenuhi kebutuhan sekolah tidak berasal dari sumbernya, akan tetapi menggunakan kembali air yang sudah dipakai melalui teknologi air limbah.
Teknologi pengolahan air limbah yang digunakan tentu sangat mahal harganya. Negara kita belum mampu memenuhi hal itu, apalagi diadakan di sekolah-sekolah yang jumlahnya sangat banyak. Ada caranya sebenarnya lebih murah untuk mengatasi keterbatasan air bersih di sekolah yang dapat kalian lakukan. Cara tersebut adalah dengan melakukan penghematan air saat pamakaian dan selalu menutup kran air apabila terlihat terbuka sehingga air tidak terbuang percuma.
2. Pengelolaan Sampah di Sekolah
Agar pengelolaan sampah berlangsung dengan baik dan mencapai tujuan yang diinginkan, maka setiap kegiatan pengelolaan sampah harus mengikuti cara-cara yang baik dan benar. Apa pentingnya pengelolaan sampah di sekolah? Pada prinsipnya semakin sedikit dan semakin dekat sampah dikelola dari sumbernya, maka pengelolaannya akan semakin mudah dan baik, serta lingkungan yang terkena dampak juga semakin sedikit.
Tahapan-tahapan pengelolaan sampah di sekolah adalah :
a. Pencegahan dan pengurangan sampah dari sumbernya. Kegiatan ini dimulai dengan kegiatan pemilahan atau pemisahan organik dan anorganik dengan menyediakan tempat sampah organik dan anorganik di setiap kawasan sekolah.
b. Pemanfaatan kembali sampah terdiri atas :
1. Pemanfaatan sampah organik, seperti komposting (pengomposan) sampah yang mudah membusuk dapat diubah manjadi pupuk kompos yang ramah lingkungan untuk melestarikan fungsi kawasan sekolah. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian bahwa dengan melakukan kegiatan composting sampah organik yang komposisinya mencapai 70 % dapat direduksi hingga mencapai 25 %.
2. Pemanfaatan sampah anorganik, baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Pemanfaatan kembali secara langsung, misalnya pembuatan kerajinan yang berbahan baku dari barang bekas, atau kertas daur ulang. Sedangakan pemanfaatan kembali secara tidak langsung, misalnya menjual barang bekas seperti kertas, plastik, kaleng, koran bekas, botol, gelas dan botol air minum dalam kemasan.
3. Tempat pembuangan sampah akhir. Sisa sampah yang tidak dapat dimanfaatkan secara ekonomis baik dari kegiatan komposting maupun pemanfaatan sampah anorganik, jumlahnya mencapai + 10 % harus dibuang ke tempat pembuangan sampah akhir $28TPA) di sekolah.
Selain itu untuk menciptakan suatu kondisi sekolah yang sehat, sekolah harus memenuhi kriteria, antara lain kebersihan dan ventilasi ruangan, kebersihan kantin, WC, kamar mandi, tempat cuci tangan, melaksanakan pelayanan kesehatan, pendidikan kesehatan, bimbingan konseling dan manajemen peran serta masyarakat.

3. Pengelolaan Energi di Sekolah
Penggunaan energi di sekolah sangat penting agar proses pembelajaran dapat berjalan dengan baik. Penggunaan energi di sekolah biasanya untuk menerangi ruangan-ruangan, menyalakan barang-barang eletronik seperti komputer dan media pembelajaran, mengalirkan pompa air, dll.
Terhadap fasilitas umum seperti sekolah, hendaknya kita bersama-sama bertanggung jawab untuk memelihara dan menghemat pada saat pemakaiannya. Banyak cara yang dapat kalian lakukan dalam rangka pengelolaan energi disekolah, misalnya melalui penggunaan cahaya matahari untuk menerangi ruangan-ruangan belajar di kelas, perpustakaan, laboratorium, dll. Menghemat pemakaian air karena dialirkan menggunakan listrik, mematikan lampu-lampu yang masih menyala saat siang hari. Mematikan alat-alat elektronik seperti komputer dan televisi saat sedang tidak digunakan.

4. Pengelolaan Ruang Kelas
Penyusunan dan pengaturan ruang belajar hendaknya memungkinkan anak duduk berkelompok dan memudahkan guru bergerak leluasa untuk membantu siswa dalam belajar. Dalam masalah penataan ruang kelas ini beberapa hal yang perlu mendapatkan pembahasan adalah masalah pengaturan tempat duduk, pengaturan alat-alat pengajaran, penataan keindahan dan kebersihan kelas, dan ventilasi serta cahaya.

5. Pengelolaan Halaman Sekolah
Sekolah sebagai tempat belajar perlu memiliki lingkungan yang bersih dan sehat agar tercipta suasana belajar yang nyaman. Kita bisa membayangkan apabila sekolah kita kotor dan tidak sehat, tentu sangat mengganggu kegiatan belajar mengajar. Pastikan ruangan kelas kalian bersih dari sampah, debu dan bau yang tidak sedap. Bahkan kalian bisa menambahkannya dengan wangi-wangian dan tanaman hidup dalam pot.
Lingkungan sekolah yang bersih dan sehat tidak hanya di dalam kelas tetapi juga diluar kelas, seperti di halaman. Halaman sekolah selain di tata keindahannya, juga perlu memperhatikan persyaratan kesehatan. Halaman sekolah yang tidak sehat dapat menimbulkan berbagai macam penyakit sehingga menimbulkan rasa tidak nyaman bagi semua warga sekolah.

2.3.2 Manajemen Keamanan Sekolah

Menciptakan sekolah yang aman, nyaman, dan disiplin sangatlah penting agar siswa dapat mencapai prestasi yang terbaik dan guru dapat menampilkan kinerja yang terbaik Untuk mewujudkan sekolah yang aman perlu dilakukan beberapa langkah. Pertama, sekolah harus membentuk komite yang terdiri dari berbagai stakeholders, yaitu masyarakat sekitar sekolah, orang tua, guru, kepala sekolah komite sekolah dan siswa. Dengan melibatkan semua fihak diharapkan komite dapat memperjatam pemahaman dan kesepakatan tentang apa yang perlu dilakukan. Melibatkan keahlian yang terdapat di masyarakat, seperti anggota kepolisian atau ABRI sangatlah penting. Keterlibatan orang tua juga sangat penting agar hal-hal yang menjadi keprihatinan siswa dapat didengar dan diselesaikan. Selain itu stakeholders yang lain perlu dilibatkan agar dapat didengar bagaimana pengalaman mereka sehubungan dengan mewujudkan sekolah yang aman.
Tugas pertama dari komite ini adalah melakukan needs assessment mengenai keadaan sekolah saat ini ditinjau dari segi keamanan. Berdasarkan penilaian awal ini, komite dapat memperoleh pengetahuan mengenai kekuatan dan kelemahan sekolah dalam hal keamanan.
Kedua, untuk meningkatkan keamanan sekolah, upaya harus difokuskan pada bangunan fisik sekolah, tata letak dan kebijakan dan prosedur yang ada untuk melaksanakan kegiatan sehari-hari dan menyelesaikan masalah yang mungkin timbul. Bangunan sekolah, kelas, ruang lab, kantor, perpustakaan, lapangan olah raga dan halaman sekolah harus direview. Selain itu, berbagai kebijakan dan prosedur juga akses masuk sekolah harus dinilai kembali. Penggunaan teknologi untuk mencegah orang masuk penyusup masuk dari luar seperti alarm, pagar, teralis harus dipertimbangkan. Pencegahan ini harus distandarkan oleh sekolah dan standar-standar lain untuk mencegah hal-hal yang tidak diinginkan harus dibuat seperti membawa benda-benda tajam atau benda-benda lain yang berbahaya. Jalur komunikasi dan prosedur yang harus diikuti bila terjadi kejadian pencurian atau pelanggaran lainnya harus dibuat.
Usaha lain adalah adanya penjaga sekolah (satpam), pembentukan Patroli Keamanan Sekolah (PKS), Menwa (Resimen Mahasiswa) di tingkat perguruan tinggi, atau yang sejenisnya.
Hubungan manusiawi yang diwujudkan dalam sikap menghormati, saling membantu, bekerja sama atau saling bersedia melakukan pendekatan adalah sikap yang tidak saja diperlukan bagi kegiatan belajar bersama tetapi juga berguna bagi kehidupan bersama di masyarakat sekarang dan masa yang akan datang.

2.3.3 Ciri-ciri Lingkungan Sekolah yang Kondusif

Adapun ciri-ciri untuk menciptakan lingkungan sekolah yang kondusif yaitu dengan memperhatikan beberapa aspek berikut :
1. Tata ruang kelas lebih lapang
Dalam artian jumlah siswa dalam kelas yang tidak melebihi kapasitas standar kelas kurang lebih 30 siswa.

2. Kebersihan kelas dan sarana interior kelas yang memadai.
Sarana dalam kegiatan belajar mengajar yang cukup nyaman akan menjadikan para siswa lebih jonsentrasi untuk menerima pelajaran.

3. Cara mengajar guru yang lebih mengacu pada kurikulum.
Maksudnya adalah guru lebih memperhatikan kebiasaan para siswa dan dapat menambah minat belajar siswa. Mungkin dengan siapa memberikan tugas-tugas yang berbeda-beda pada setiap siswa atau memberikan permainan-permainan kecil saat proses pelajaran.

4. Dengan cara pengelolaan sekolah dari kepala sekolah itu sendiri.
Maksudnya apakah kepala sekolah akan mengambil tindakan tegas bagi setiap tindakan di sekolah atau tidak. Maupun dari cara berpikir seorang pemimpin, controlling, monitoring, dan leading sekolah itu dengan baik.


BAB III
PENUTUP

3.1 Kesimpulan

Dari paparan makalah di atas dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa :
a. Manajemen merupakan kemampuan dan keterampilan khusus yang dimiliki oleh seseorang untuk melakukan suatu kegiatan baik secara perorangan ataupun bersama orang lain atau melalui orang lain dalam upaya mencapai tujuan organisasi secara produktif.
b. Llingkungan sekolah yang aman, nyaman, dan tentram sangat mempengaruhi belajar peserta didik. Maka untuk mewujudkan tercapainya iklim proses pendidikan yang kondusif harus diciptakan tata lingkungan dan suasana aman yang mendukung.
c. Salah satu usaha untuk mewujudkan hal tersebut adalah menerapkan program pendidikan lingkungan hidup (PLH) di sekolah. Dengan adanya PLH ini diharapkan siswa bisa berpartisipasi dalam mewujudkan lingkungan sekolah khususnya dan lingkungan alam pada umumnya. Agar program PLH ini bisa berjalan maka harus diterapkan dalam kurikulum pelajaran di sekolah.
d. Manajemen PLH di sekolah dapat dilakukan dengan mengacu pada prinsip dan elemen ISO 14.001 yang meliputi Plan, Do, Check, dan Action. Hal ini juga sejalan dengan peningkatan pengelolaan sekolah (School Based Manajemen) dalam meningkatkan mutu pengelolaan sekolah secara mandiri. Sedangkan prinsip dan elemen pelaksanaan pengelolaan PLH di sekolah dapat dilakukan dengan cara-cara sebagai berikut: Kebijakan PLH di sekolah, Pelaksanaan (do), pelaksanaan (do), pemeriksaan dan tindakan perbaikan, dan tinjauan lulang managemen.
e. Usaha lain untuk mewujudkan sekolah yang aman adalah melengkapi sekolah alat-alat keamanan sekolah. Alat-alat pengamanan sekolah bisa berupa individu(penjaga sekolah/satpam), organisasi (PKS, Menwa),alat-alat pengintai(CCTV), maupun tata bangunan yang memenuhi syarat keamanan.


DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Tim Dosen Administrasi Pendidikan Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, 2009. Manajemen Pendidikan, Bandung : Penerbit Alfabeta.
Marno, dkk. 2008. Manajemen dan Kepemimpinan Pendidikan Islam. Bandung : PT Refika Aditama.
Nawawi, Hadari. 1989. Organisasi Sekolah dan Pengelolaan Kelas. Jakarta : CV Haji Masagung.
Muhaimin, dkk. 2010. “Manajemen Pendidikan” Aplikasinya dalam Penyusunan Rencana Pengembangan Sekolah/Madrasah. Jakarta : Kencana.
Effendi, Moehtar. 1996. Manajemen Suatu pendekatan Berdasarkan Ajaran Islam. Jakarta : Bhatara.
http://kangchoy87.blogspot.com/2011/06/makalah-administrasi.html
repository.usu.ac.id/bitstream/123456789/14916/1/09E01101.pdf

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Pesantren Educational System and Social Transformation

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background

Since colonial times, Pesantren and Madrasah Diniyah an educational institution that grow and thrive in the midst of society. Existence of these two institutions have long received public recognition. Both are involved in the effort to make the life of the nation, and not only in terms of morale, but has also participated as well as providing a significant contribution in providing education. Religious institutions can be shaped education track or path outside of school education.
As an educational institution that has long been developing in Indonesia, in addition to the Pesantrenhas managed to nurture and develop the religious life in Indonesia, also had a role in instilling a sense of nationhood into the soul of the people of Indonesia, as well as actively participate in efforts to educate the nation..
In terms of historical, Pesantrenis the oldest form of indigenous educational institutions in Indonesia. Pesantrenhas been known long before Indonesia became independent, bahakan since Islam arrived in Indonesia continues to grow and develop in line with the development of education in general.

1.2 Problem formulation
1. What is pesantren?
2. How does the history of the founding of pesantren?
3. What are the elements of pesantren?
4. What are the typology of pesantren?
5. How learning methods in pesantren?
6. How the transformation of pesantren in the modern era?

1.3 Purpose
1. Knowing what is meant by pesantren
2. Knowing the history of the founding of pesantren
3. Knowing the elements of pesantren
4. Knowing the typology of pesantren
5. Knowing the methods of learning in pesantren
6. Knowing the transformation of pesantren in the modern era


CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

2.1 Definition of Pesantren

Before the 60's, educational centers pesantren in Java and Madura, better known by the name of the cottage. The term probably originated from the notion cottage dormitories, the students called a lodge or shelter made of bamboo, or perhaps derived from the Arabic word "funduq" which means a hotel or hostel. Pesantren in the course of its history has been the object of Western scholars who studied Islam. Pesantren derived from the word "students" who got pe prefix and suffix's, meaning the abode of the students. Professor Johns argues that the term comes from the Tamil language students, which means the teacher of the Koran, while CC Berg argues that the term is derived from the term that Shastri in India means a person who knows the sacred books of Hinduism, or a scholar of Hindu scriptures expert. Shastri word comes from the word shastra which means holy books, religious books or books about science.
Viewing from the function and usefulness of Islamic boarding schools as an educational institution that has a distinctive characteristic, then in other areas (outside Java) living Islamic institutions that have the same functionality and benefits with different names, for example meunasah in Aceh, surau in Sumatra, rangkang in Borneo. In fact, according to other experts known as the shrine where the bangunannyaterpencil from the crowd and circular learning system that is now known as bandongan.
In the Indonesian dictionary is defined as a Pesantrendormitory where students or where students learn the Koran. While in terms of Islamic boarding schools are educational institutions where the students used to live in the cottage (dormitory) with teaching material of classical books and general books aim to master the details of Islamic religious knowledge and practice as guidelines for daily living by emphasizing the importance of moral in the life community.
Pesantren is a religious institution which has its own peculiarities and different from other educational institutions. Education in Islamic boarding schools include education, preaching, community development and other similar education. Learners in schools are generally referred to students living in boarding schools. The place where the students lived in Pesantrenenvironments, referred to as cottages. From this, it called by Islamic Boarding Schools.

2.2 History of Establishment of Pesantren

Tracing the growth and development of institutions of Islamic education in Indonesia, including the early establishment of boarding schools and madrasas diniyah, not apart relation to the history of Islam in Indonesia. Islamic education in Indonesia began when the people who converted to Islam would like to know more content embraced the new religion, either on procedures for worship, reading the Qur'an, and Islamic knowledge is wider and deeper. They are learning at home, mosque, broken, or mosque. In places these people who are new to Islam and their children learn to read the Koran and other religious sciences, individually and directly.
New Pesantrenin Indonesia known existence and its development after the 16th century. The works of such classical Javanese Cabolek fibers and fiber found Centini reveals institutions that teach a variety of books in the field of classical Islamic jurisprudence, Sufism, and became centers of Islamic broadcasting, namely Islamic boarding schools.
History of education in Indonesia censure, that the Pesantrenis the oldest form of indigenous educational institutions in Indonesia. There are two opinions regarding the initial establishment of boarding schools in Indonesia. The first opinion stated that the Pesantrenrooted in the tradition of Islam itself and the second opinion said that the education system of the Pesantrenmodel is native to Indonesia.
Since the beginning of its growth, the main purpose of the Pesantrenis 1. Preparing students explore and master the science of the Islamic religion, or better known as tafaqquh fid-din, which is expected to print a cadre of scholars and also educating the people of Indonesia, followed by task 2. Da’wah spread about Islam and 3. Bastion of the people in the field of morals. Due to the times and demands, the Pesantrenpurposes was increased due to a significant role, the purpose of it is 4. Work to improve community development in various sectors of life.
With the system that called pesantren, the internalization process of Islamic teachings to students can walk in full. In boarding schools, with the leadership and exemplary clerics and religious teacher seta typical management will create a distinctive community, in which there are all aspects of life such as economics, culture, and organizational.

2.3 The Elements of Pesantren

2.3.1 Boarding

Brief definition of the term “boarding” is a simple place that is home to clerics with the santrinya. In Java, the magnitude depending on the number santrinya cottage. The existence of a very small cottage by the number of students is less than one hundred to lodge that has a vast land with a number of more than three thousand students. Regardless of how many students, boarding students are always separated women with male boarding students.
The complex has a Pesantrenbuildings other than dormitories house students and clerics, religious teachers also include housing, building Islamic schools, sports fields, canteen, cooperative, farm land pertenakan. Sometimes cottage building itself was founded by clerics and occasionally by villagers who work together to collect the funds needed.
One cottage intentions other than those intended as a dormitory where the students are as a training ground for students to develop their independence skills to prepare them to live independently in the community after graduating from boarding school. Students must own cooking, washing his own clothes and were given tasks such as maintaining the cabin environment.

Boarding system is a hallmark of the pesantren tradition that distinguishes pesantren education system with a system of Islamic education such as the education system in Minangkabau region called the mosque or systems used in Afghanistan.

2.3.2 Mosque

The mosque is an element that can not be separated by boarding and regarded as a most appropriate place to educate the students, especially in the practice of praying five times, sermons, and the Friday prayer, and teaching classical Islamic books. Status of the mosque as a center of education in the pesantren tradition universalism is a manifestation of the traditional Islamic educational system.
Connexion of Islamic education and mosque very close and tight in the Islamic tradition around the world. In the past, the Muslims always use the mosque for the worship and also as a place of Islamic educational institutions. As a center of spiritual life, social and political, and educational Islam, the mosque is an aspect of everyday life are very important for the community. Usually the first founded by a religious scholars who wish to develop a Pesantrenis the mosque. The mosque is located near or in the back of the house kyai.

2.3.3 Teaching Using Classical Islamic Books

The books authored classical Islamic scholars earlier and includes lessons on the various sciences of Islamic religion and Arabic. In the boarding schools, classical Islamic books often referred to the book because of the color yellow paper editions of the book mostly yellow.
According to Dhofier (1985:50), “in the past, teaching classical Islamic books are the only formal instruction given in the Pesantrenenvironment. "At this time, most schools have taken the teaching of general knowledge as an important part also in the Pesantreneducation, but teaching the books of Islamic classic still given high importance. In general, the lesson begins with books that are simple, then proceed with the books and deeper levels of a Pesantrencan be known from the type of books that are taught.(Hasbullah, 1999:144).
There are eight kinds of knowledge taught in the classical Islamic books, including: 1. Nahwu and sharaf (morphology); 2. fiqh; 3. proposal fiqh; 4. Hadith; 5. interpretation; 6. monotheism; 7. tasawwuf and ethics; and 8. other branches such as the chronicle and Balaghah. All types of books can be classified into groups according to level of teaching, for example: elementary, intermediate and advanced. The Book is taught in schools in Java in general same. (Dhofier 1985:51).

2.3.4 Santri (Student)

Students are important elements in a boarding institution, because the first step in the stages of building a Pesantrenis that there must be a student who came to learn from an alim. If the student has lived in the house of a pious, learned that the new one can be called religious scholars and began to build a more complete facilities for boarding.
There two kinds of students :
1. Kalong Student
Is the students who did not settle in a hut but went home after the completion of each follow a lesson in boarding. Students bats usually come from areas around schools so do not mind if often go home.
A students went and settled in a Pesantrenfor various reasons :
a. He wanted to study any other book that discusses in more depth Islam under the guidance of clerics who led the pesantren.
b. He wanted to gain experience of Pesantrenlife, both in teaching, organization and relationship with the famous pesantren.
c. He wants to concentrate his studies at the seminary without preoccupied with day-to-day duties at the family home. In addition, by staying in a Pesantrenthat are very far from his own house, he does not easily go back though sometimes he want.
2. Mukim Student
He is the son or daughter who lived in Pesantrenand usually come from distant regions. In the past, the opportunity to go and settle in a distant Pesantrenis a privilege for the students because he had full ideals, have courage enough and ready to face its own challenges that will be experienced in the boarding. (Dhofier, 1985:52).

2.3.5 Kyai

Kyai important role in the establishment, growth, development and maintenance of a Pesantrenmeans he is the most essential element. As leaders of pesantren, pesantren lot of character and success depend on the expertise and depth of knowledge, and charismatic authority, and skill kyai. In this context, personal religious scholars is crucial because he is the central figure in a boarding.
The term kiai is not derived from the Arabic, but from the Java language (Ziemek, 1986:130). In the Java language, the words of clerics used for three different types of degrees, namely:
1. As the title of honor for the goods that are considered sacred; for example, "Kyai Golden Garuda" is used to specify a train of gold that is in Kraton Yogyakarta;
2. Honors for older people in general;
3. Title given by the society to the scholar of Islam who have become leaders or boarding schools and teaching classical Islamic books to the santri.

2.4 The Typology of Pesantren

Along with the rate of development of the community then either place a Pesantreneducation until the substance has been much changed. Pesantren is no longer as simple as what a person described but the boarding schools might be changed in accordance with the growth and development of the times.
According to Yacob cited by Khozin say that there is some division of Pesantrenand typology :
• Salafi Pesantren is a Pesantrenwhile maintaining a lesson with classic books and without any public knowledge. Pengajarannyapun as a common model applied in salaf pesantren is with methods weton and sorogan.
• Khalafi Pesantren is schools that implement classical teaching system (Madrasi) provide general knowledge and science of religion as well as providing vocational education.
• Short term Pesantren is which form a kind of Pesantrentraining in a relatively short time and usually held on school holidays. It focuses on the Islamic School ibdah and leadership skills. While the students consists of students who follow religious activities deemed necessary dipesantren lightning.
• Integrated Pesantren is boarding a greater emphasis on vocational education as vocasional or training centers in the Department of Labor with an integrated program. While the majority of students come from the children drop out of school or job seekers. (2006:101).
Meanwhile, according to Masoud et al there are several typologies or models Pesantrenthat is:
• Pesantren that maintains the purity of the original identity as a place of religious sciences menalami (tafaqquh fi-i-din) for the santrinya. All the material taught in these schools are religious are all derived from the Arabic-language books (yellow book) written by the scholars' medieval. Pesantren model is still much we have encountered up to now as Lirboyo pesantren in East Java Kediri elapsed schools in central Java Apex Nest District and others.
• boarding which include common materials in the teaching curriculum, but with organized themselves according to their needs and do not follow the curriculum set by national governments so that diplomas issued not get recognition from the government as a formal diploma.
• conducting public education Pesantrenin good shape madrassas (Islamic schools distinctively in the shade DEPAG) and schools (public schools under DEPDIKNAS) in various levels even up to a higher education include not only the religious faculties meliankan also general faculties. Pesantren Tebu Ireng in Jombang East Java example adl.
• Pesantren which is a Muslim student dormitory where the students learn in schools or colleges outside it. Religious education in schools of this model is given outside school hours so that it can be followed by all santrinya. It is estimated that this is the largest Pesantren model number. (2002:149-150).

2.5 Learning Method in Pesantren

Here are some traditional teaching methods that characterize learning in the main cabin salafiyah.
a. Sorogan Method
This method is originally from javanese language “sorog” that means inform/publish. Students inform/publish theirs book/kitab to their teacher (kyai, ustad,etc). This system is included as individual learning system. Where students facing their teachers and interract each other to giving information about their studies. This method is very common and very effective for pesantren and always used in several pesantren in Indonesia.

b. Wetonan/Bandongan Method
This method is originally from javanese language “weton” that means “time”. This method explained that study in pesantren is determined in particular time. Usually, in several pesantren study settled before or after praying. this method conducted by teacher to explain to his student and his students listen to his explaination about their studies in book that read by teacher.

c. Musyawarah Method
Musyawarah is the method that almost same with discussion method. Students make their own group and then discuss about their studies. And then, after they discuss they presented their thought that concluded after the discussion. And the teacher give addition to make the problem of studies clear.
This method also used in order to solve problems of islamic studies like fiqh, tauhid, etc.

d. Recitation Method
Recitation method means that students attend to some recitation in other pesantrens to make relation between students and another pesantren. They travel to one pesantren to another in order to develop their studies about different method of another pesantren, because each pesantren have their own method.

e. Memorize Method
Memorize method is the activity of student in pesantren to memoryze their studies under the guidance from teachers. This method is effective in recitaion about Holy Qur’an, Nahwu, Lughoh (Language), Shorof, etc.

f. Demonstration Method
This method means that teacher give demonstration about worshipping activities. This method usually used in pesantren on fisrt grade or lower grade. Teacher demonstrate how to pray, recite qur’an and hadith, and another worshipping activities.

2.6 Pesantren Transformation in Modern Era

a. Educational Transformation of Pesantren
Almost of Islamic Education Institutions are aiming and focusing on Islamic teaching and or religious texts. Because, pesantren has signature of ‘the originality of Indonesian educational institution’. Abdurrahman Wahid argues that pesantren are categorized as a sub-culture. Because in fact, pesantren has own cultural characteristics such as cultural discourse about educational values, leadership style, and pesantren values which are considered different from the outsider’s perspective.
In this Era, obviously gives challenge and obstacle to educational outcomes and many of competitive people, while at the same time pesantren as educational institutions still need to be able to keep their tradition and originality as a provider of Islamic teaching.

b. Cultural Transformation of Pesantren
In this modern Era, the cultural educational values of pesantren are varied. And this educational values are not only take prior from Islamic studies just like Fiqh and Tafsir supervised by Kyai but are also dominated by general/secular knowledge subjects like technology, and mathematics.
Implementation of National curriculum in traditional religious schools inside of pesantren leads the management of pesantren to recruiting new teachers and staffs that has background are not necessarily in Islamic studies. And because of that, transfer of authority in Pesantren from old Kyai to younger Kyai produces a new dynamics in Pesantren Culture.
Most Pesantren in this globalization era are using a new systems and technologies to improve the education in that pesantren. Such as, now in pesantren has a school laboratories to do experiment and observation for scientific science. And using of modern communication to connect between the office and dorms in Pesantren. But, pesantren still keep their own tradition and their method of teaching. The dedication from santri to Kyai still high and they are respecting to Kyai. These factors are the new hybrid system that made pesantren in this era still exist and still develop bigger and bigger. Because they combine and using a new systems to keep their tradition. That’s a good point.

c. Social Transformation
Beside Pesantren have basic character above, pesantren also plural character, heterogeneous. Pluralism of pesantren, they showed by there is no everything regulation, well contain about managerial, administration, bureaucracy, structure, culture, curriculum especially politic that explain pesantren become just one.
Regulation come from religious understanding that personificated by some Yellow Book. Because of pluralism level and strong independent, felt so difficult to give conceptual formula that definitive about pesantren.


CHAPTER III
ANALYZE

1. The Suitable Learning Method that could be used by pesantren in this era

If we talk about suitable method that could be used in this era, we just combine and integrate the old and valuable method with new method of teaching in this era. Suitable method sometimes is using the discussion method because discussion method is a way to prepare, to train the student (santri) to discuss, to make a group or we could call it by small-size society that contained by some students that thinking together, solve problem together, and use discussion to get the best and the most valuable decision from it. And then the second method that important and could be used too is the recitation method. Students go to another pesantren or another educational education, whether Islamic institution or secular institution of education. They learn something from that, students could compare some of studies that used in another institution and also they could integrate it by their own studies. So, some of learning method of pesantren, that two methods are the suitable method that could be used by pesantren in this era and could be integrated by the new technology, new education method, and new curriculum.

2. Salafi pesantren that used the improvization and being Khalafi pesantren

In this era, there are some salafi pesantren that still exist and still survive. In order to develop and make survival of that pesantren, it uses integration, between old method and new method. According to Dr. Hussein Aziz, an alumna and senior Ustadz at Pesantren sidogiri, who also Has a modern educational background: it is common knowledge that pesantren usually refers to the principle of al muhafadat ala qadim al shohih wa al akhdu bi al jaded al aslah (maintaining the old values that are good and still relevant and adapting the newer one that are better). So, some salafi pesantren integrate with the new technology, new method, and new social approach to make a bigger development and make an improvisation in order to keep and maintain the pesantren itself, it happened because the modernization already affecting some society and environment around that pesantren itself. So the pesantren must develop and adapting the social-changing that caused by modernization in society, they integrate by the technology because the society is changed. And the pesantren must have an alumna that capable to handle that situation. So, they do that improvization.

3. Problem that dealt by pesantren in this era

The first and the critical problem is about the leadership itself. Everyone knew that the leader of pesantren is a Kyai, that mastering the Islamic educational studies, and also he’s the one that capable to get the social approach to his students in the pesantren. In this era, there are some changing in society and world. And the leadership style also must be change. The leadership of the pesantren is the crucial thing in there. Change and improve the leadership that capable not only the situation inside pesantren, but also maintaining and adapting some modern and changing around the pesantren. They need the best and the most capable leader that mastering both classical and modern education style. That capable to handle the Islamic and secular/general issues in the pesantren, that could recite using Islamic religion value and secular value.
The second is financial, because pesantren needs to change the financial management. Because, the one and only problem that caused all of this is the modernization. Pesantren need change and improve using technology inside of pesantren and some education institution in pesantren (school). Improvisation that include the infrastructure itself. Funds is the second of the biggest problem in pesantren. Because if pesantren want to improve, it needs the funds to improve.
The third problem is the management, we conclude the management is around the curriculum, education method, and the development of life skill in the pesantren itself. And some pesantren in this era must integrate the curriculum not only recite about Islamic religious value deeply using kitab kuning but also knowing about science or secular science. This concept is intended to make student vary care about both of science, religious science and general science. When they decide of a scientific method, they could recite it and could make a correlation between that scientific method with some Islamic values. So, they could realize that using Islamic values to recite and study about scientific method is the best method. And the curriculum itself must be balanced, if students study about religious value deeply, then students must study about general science deeply too. To make a hybrid alumna of pesantren that could solve a problem not using the intellectual ability but also using spiritual ability.


CHAPTER IV
CLOSING

4.1 Conclusion

Pesantren is a religious institution which has its own peculiarities and different from other educational institutions. Education in Islamic boarding schools include education, preaching, community development and other similar education. Learners in schools are generally referred to students living in boarding schools. The place where the students lived in boarding school environments, referred to as cottages. From this, it called by the term Islamic Boarding Schools.
In this Era, obviously gives challenge and obstacle to educational outcomes and many of competitive people, while at the same time pesantren as educational institutions still need to be able to keep their tradition and originality as a provider of Islamic teaching.
In this modern Era, the cultural educational values of pesantren are varied. And this educational values are not only take prior from Islamic studies just like Fiqh and Tafsir supervised by kyai but are also dominated by general/secular knowledge subjects like technology, and mathematics.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Suwendi, Sejarah & Pemikiran Pendidikan Islam, 2004, Jakarta : PT RajaGrafindo Persada.
Dhofier, Zamakhsyari, Tradisi Pesantren, Studi tentang Pandangan Hidup Kyai, 1994, Jakarta:LP3ES.
Departemen Agama RI, 2003, Pondok Pesantren dan Madrasah Diniyah Pertumbuhan dan Perkembangannya. Jakarta: Departemen Agama RI Direktorat Jenderal Kelembagaan Agama Islam.
Marzuki Wahid, “ Pesantren di Lautan Pembangunanisme: Mencari Kinerja Pemberdayaan”, dalam Marzuki Wahid, et.al ed. Pesantren Masa Depan: Wacana Pemberdayaan dan Transformasi Pesantren. (Bandung:Pustaka Hidayah,1999) Cet. I hlm. 145-147.
Kawakib, A. Nurul, 2009;Pesantren and Globalisation: Cultural and Educational Transformation, Malang, UIN Press.
http://blog.re.or.id/pondok-pesantren-sebagai-lembaga-pendidikan-islam.htm

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Total Quality Management

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
One thing that is very significant in improving the performance challenges competition is through continuous improvement in business activity focused on consumers, including the overall organization and emphasis on flexibility and quality. Therefore, the quality and management associated with improvements sustained by many companies in order to encourage increased market competition and won. Companies that do not
manage the changes will be missed.
In line with the organizational paradigm shift from 'market oriented' to
'Resources-oriented', then one way that can be taken by the Company is to fix their own resources to survive in Long-term competition. One proper way is to implementing Total Quality Management (Muluk, 2003: 3).
Total Quality Management (TQM) is a new paradigm in running a business that seeks to maximize the competitiveness of organizations through: focus on consumer satisfaction, involvement of all employees, and repair continuously for the quality of products, services, people, processes and organizational environment (Krajewski, Lee, and Ritzman (1999: 242).
Some experts argue that the success or failure TQM implementation is largely influenced by cultural factors (Kekale, 1999:1; Parncharoen, Girardi, and Entrekin, 2005:597; Jabnoun and Sedrani, 2005:8; Kujala and Ullarank, 2004:1), because TQM is essentially a program organizational change that requires a transformation of organizational culture, processes, and beliefs (Parncharoen, Girardi, and Entrekin, 2005).



1.2 Problem Formulation
1. What is the definition of Total Quality Management?
2. How was the history of Total Quality Management?
3. What are the theories of Total Quality Management?
4. What are the principles of Total Quality Management?
5. How the implementation of Total Quality Management in Islamic Education Institution?

1.3 Purpose
1. Knowing the definition of Total Quality Management
2. Knowing the history of Total Quality Management
3. Knowing the theories of Total Quality Management
4. Knowing the principles of Total Quality Management
5. Knowing the implementation of Total Quality Management in Islamic Education Institution



CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

2.1 The Definition of Total Quality Management

Quality management is more popular with the term TQM is a way of improving the performance of work are continually in every level of operations or processes in each functional area of an organization to use all human resources and capital available. While Ross in William Mantja (2000) defines TQM as the integration of all functions and processes within the organization to acquire and achieve improvement and increased quality of goods as sustainable products and services. The ultimate goal is customer satisfaction or customer.
So, Total Quality Management (TQM) in education, as quoted by William (2000) and is defined as a set of principles and techniques that emphasize that quality improvement must rely on educational institutions to continuously and sustainably enhance organizational capacity and capability to meet the demands and needs students and community members.
From the definition above, we can underline that the Quality Management (MPM) is contained effort: 1. Controlling processes that take place in educational institutions or schools both curricular and administration, 2. Involves the process of diagnosis, 3. Quality improvement should be based on data and facts both qualitative and quantitative, 4. Quality improvement must be continuous and ongoing, 5. Improved quality must empower and involve all the elements that exist in educational institutions, and 6. Quality improvement which states that schools can provide the satisfaction of students, parents and the community (Hadi, 2001).
Quality improvement management (MPM) or TQM is a philosophy of continuous quality improvement and can be used as a practical tool by educational institutions in meeting the needs, desires, and expectations of current and future customers. TQM is also an activity to do everything correctly at all times. It is based on these realities better than on fixing the error. Therefore, it is very appropriate if the primary purpose of TQM in education is improving the quality of education continuously.
According to Murgatroyd & Morgan (1994:66) the successful implementation of TQM in educational institutions is based on five key words: vision (vision), strategies and objectives (strategy and goals), team (teams), and tools (tools) as well as the Three Cs of TQM (3Cs.), namely culture (culture), commitment (commitment), and communication (communication).
 TQM Objectives
The main objective of TQM in education is to improve the quality of education in a sustainable, continuous, and integrated. Efforts to improve the quality of education that is intended not once, but rather addressed by improving the quality of education in each component.
2.2 The History of Total Quality Management
Research quality starts from the discovery of statistical quality control with control charts by Shewhart in 1930 until today. The development of quality in terms of evolution, both from American and Japanese bunch (Nasution, 2001).
According to Garvin, the quality as a concept has long been recognized, but its emergence as a new management function occurred lately. He divided the modern approach to quality into the fourth era of the quality of the inspection, a statistical quality control, quality assurance and quality management strategy.


a. Inspection
This approach emerged in the early 19th century. Quality control includes several models of the uniform of a product to measure actual performance. Such uniformity is possible in manufacturing that comes with development tools designed to ensure the operation of the machines in order to produce identical parts that are interchangeable. Inspection of the output can be done directly or with the help of tools.


b. The Quality Control Statistics
The second approach is a statistical quality control. In 1931 WA Shewhart publish quality movement that uses a scientific approach. He stated that the variability is a reality in the world of industry and this can be understood using the principles of probability and statistics. Its main contribution is a process control chart to plot the value of production to determine whether the value falls within the desired range.
c. Quality Assurance
In this era there is a development of four important new concept of quality assurance that is the cost of quality, integrated quality control (TQC total quality control =), reliability engineering and zero defects. The cost of quality is a term to answer the question "how much quality is enough? "According to Juran, the cost to achieve a certain quality can be divided into costs that can be avoided den costs that can not be avoided. Costs that can not be avoided is the cost associated with inspection and quality control measures designed to avoid any damage. Costs that can be avoided is the cost of product failures include faulty materials, working hours are used for rework and repair, complaints processing, and financial losses due to a disappointed customer. Management implication is that the additional expenditure for the improvement of quality can be justified as long as the cost of failure is still high.

 A Brief History of Development of TQM
The evolution of total quality movement started from the period of study time and motion by Mr. Scientific Management, Frederick Winston Taylor in the 1920's decade.
The most fundamental aspect of scientific management is the separation between planning and execution. Although the division of tasks has led to major improvements in productivity, the actual concept of the division of the task has been set aside old concepts of expertise / skills, where highly skilled individuals who do all the work required to produce a quality product. Taylor's scientific management to overcome this by making the task of planning and task management workforce (Nasution, 2001).
Along with the increasing volume and complexity of manufacturing, quality is also becoming increasingly difficult. The volume and complexity of encouraging the emergence of quality engineering in the 1920s and reliability engineering in the year 2950's. Quality engineering itself encourage the use of statistical methods in quality control that eventually leads to the concept of control charts and statistical process control. Both of these concepts is a fundamental aspect of total quality management.
Although the concept of TQM is heavily influenced by developments in Japan, but can not be stated that TQM 'Made in Japan'. This is because many aspects of TQM are sourced from the United States, including the following :
1. Scientific Management
2. Group Dynamics
3. Training and Development
4. Achievement motivation
5. Involvement of employees
6. System socio technical
7. Organizational Development
8. Organizational culture
9. The new leadership theory
10. The concept lingking-pin
11. Strategic planning

2.3 The Theories of Total Quality Management

In defining the quality of the product, there are five experts in quality management integrated with different opinions but that is the same (Nasution, 2001).
1. According to Juran, the product quality is use of the product conformity (finess for use) to meet the needs and customer satisfaction. The fit of the use of it based on the five characteristics :
a. Technology, i.e. the strength and durability
b. psychological, i.e. taste or status
c. Time, i.e. reliability
d. Contractual, i.e. the existence of guarantee
e. Ethics, manners, hospitable and honest
2. According to Crosby, quality is conformance to compliance with the requirement that is presupposed or standardised. A product has quality if in accordance with the prescribed quality standards. Standard quality include raw materials, production processes, and the finished product.
3. According to Deming, quality is conformance to the requirements of the market. Juran defines quality as if the fitness for use and Crosby as conformance to requirement, the Deming quality as defined by the needs of the market or the suitability of the consumer. The company should really be able to understand what is required of a consumer product that will be generated.
4. According to the Feigenbaum, quality is customer satisfaction completely (full customer satisfaction). A product is said to be qualified if can give entirely satisfaction to consumers, i.e. in accordance with what is expected of a consumer product
5. According to Garvin Brown, dynamic quality is a condition that is associated with a product, human/labor, processes and tasks, as well as environments that meet or exceed customer expectations or consumers. Tastes or expectations of consumers on an ever-changing products so that the quality of the product must also be changed or adjusted.
Although there is no definition of the quality of the universally accepted, however the definition of some equation, i.e.:
a. Quality of the covers meet or exceed the expectations of business customers
b. Quality of the products, services, processes and human environment
c. Quality includes the ever-changing conditions

2.4 The Principles of Total Quality Management
Achievement of the above objective can be realized when using the following principles: first, focusing on the user / customer (customer focus); second, increase the quality in the process (process improvement); third, involving all components of education (total involvement).
Focusing on the user refers to any increase in the quality of education must be based on the desires, needs and expectations of educational users (internal & external). This concept requires field data collection and analysis properly so it is necessary to bring the two sides.
Improving the quality of the process refers to the continuous improvement (continuous) which is built on the basis of: the work will produce a series of interrelated stages and activities that will ultimately result in the output (output). In carrying out the improvement of the quality of education there is the method known as "Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle".
Involvement of total / full is the core concept of TQM. Through the total involvement, the idea of getting loyal customers is reflected in the organization. To build a loyal employees and suppliers as well. Putting total involvement and combine the efforts of everyone: managers, workers, and suppliers as partners in a mutually beneficial relationship (Tenner & DeToro, 1995: 157). The third principle of TQM can be explained in detail is as follows:

a. Focus on the Customer (Customer Focuss))
Key to the success of a TQM culture of effective relationships, both internally and externally, between the customer and supplier. All networking and communication both vertically and horizontally needs to be optimized. It is very necessary to establish a climate conducive to the creation of a culture of quality is expected. Therefore, leaders need to create a culture of communication by making use of all media in a harmonious multi-way all the time needed to implement TQM in education. If this can be done and welcome means of this organization is ready to enter the century of communication and information..
There are some that must be considered by the institution of such customers, namely:
1. Really understand what the customer wants
2. Paying attention to customer satisfaction
3. Understanding customer expectations by answering four key questions, namely:
a) What kind of product or service that customers expect
b) Quality level is how it takes to satisfy their expectations
c) What exactly is the importance of each characteristic service or product
d) How satisfied customers with quality at a level now.
One form focuses on the customer is to provide a quality service. Hallmark of a quality service is what has allowed our customers to feel that they have done a fair exchange and receive value. It can be seen on the services that are:
1. Faster, better, cheaper
2. Eight dimensions of quality, namely:
a) Performance, operating characteristics of a product; b) Features, which is prominent characteristics, features, c) Reliability (reliability); d) Confarmance (suitability); e) Durability (resistance, lifetime); f) serviceability (power / level of service); g) Aesthetics; h) the perceived quality.
3. Ten determinants of service quality, namely:
a) Reliability (reliable power); b) Responsiveness (responsiveness); c) Access: d) Caurtesy (courtesy); e) Communication; f) Credibility; g) Security (security); h) Competence; i) Understand the customer; j) Real.
4. Five criteria "Rater" namely:
a) Reability; b) Insurance c) True; d) Empathy; e) Responsiveness.
Because the focus of quality is customer satisfaction, it is necessary to understand the components related to customer satisfaction. Basically, customer satisfaction can be defined simply, is a state in which the needs, desires, and customer expectations can be met through the products are consumed.
Customer satisfaction is an important factor in TQM. Satisfaction is the feeling of pleasure or disappointment that comes from a comparison between the impression of the performance (or outcome of a product and its expectations).
Departing from the above definition of satisfaction is a function of the impression the impression of performance and expectations. If performance is below expectations, the customer is not satisfied. If performance meets expectations, the customer is satisfied. If performance exceeds expectations, customers are very satisfied or pleased.


b. Improvement Process (Process Improvement)
Improving the quality of the process refers to the continuous improvement that is built on the basis of: the work will produce a series of stages and the interrelation of the activities that will eventually produce the output.
In the management process, there are six important elements in the management of educational institutions, among others: 1. Ownership, 2. Planning, 3. Control, 4. Measurement, 5. Improvement, and 6. Optimisation. In the process of development known six stages to the process of development, namely: 1. Limiting the problem, 2. Identify and document the process, 3. Performance measurement, 4. Understanding the reasons why, 5. Develop and test ideas, 6. Determination of the solution and evaluate (Tenner & DeToro, 1992:99-100). Six stages of development process models to introduce a systematic approach to using quality management in several types of processes. It can be applied to multiple pengoprasian information systems, marketing, finance, administration, R & D, service, etc.. It can also be applied to several systems that exchange information with customers, the system used to produce products and services, and systems that create a working environment.
c. Total Involvement
The inclusion of all components of an active educational leadership starts from the leader / senior management (rector) up to the faculty / staff. They must be involved to achieve a competitive advantage in a broad user environment. Faculty / staff at all levels are empowered to improve the quality of graduates together in new and flexible work structures to solve problems, improve the educational process and satisfy the users.
There are elements of support to achieve a sustainable improvement of education quality, namely: 1. Leadership, 2. Education and training, 3. Support structure, 4. Communication, 5. The award, 6. Measurement (Tenner & DeToro, 1992:32).
Leadership refers to the senior management / leadership of PTI which should lead this effort through to the relevant examples. For example, use of tools, languages, data, and recommends the concept of integrated quality management (TQM). When TQM is used as the key of management process, the role of rector as advisors, instructors, and leaders should not be ignored. That is, he must understand the objectives, principles and elements of TQM and is able to support continuous care to achieve the expected improvement of education quality.
The success of TQM programs need to be measured. Measure used is nothing but the satisfaction of customers outside the organization. The data should be collected in a systematic and systemic. The data collected need to be prepared to see their satisfaction at once to find a variety of issues that arise at the same time as the basis for continuous improvement through TQM program..
William (2000) explains that the total involvement there are some that must be considered or called supporting components include: customer, leadership, teams, processes, and structures. Medium according to Tenner & DeToro (1992) allegedly total means all members in one organanisasi / institutions ranging from superiors to subordinates involved in the development process. In this case there are three groups involved, namely leadership, employees and suppliers. A leader must be able to: 1. Develop a vision for the organization that might arouse, 2. Empowering the workforce / employees in the organization, 3. Build a reliable team work, 4. Build confidence in others, 5. Determining a quality supplier, 6. Relationships with other parties for mutual benefit.
2.4.1 The Characteristics of TQM in Education
According Gandem in Supriyanto (1999:42) that the characteristics of TQM is the indication is shown by: 1. High commitment from all levels of organization (the supreme leader until the employee is the lowest), 2. Organizations that steady, 3. Motivation and discipline. Therefore, organizations that implement TQM can be distinguished precisely by other organizations based on these characteristics.
Based on these characteristics then there are several requirements that must be met for programs that TQM can be successfully carried through properly. Requirements that must be met if TQM is implemented in educational institutions are:

a. Increased sustainable
TQM was sharpened by a number of projects on a small scale. TQM philosophy is to include a large scale, but its practical implementation in a small scale. Intervention rather drastic change in the meaning of TQM. Therefore, the focus of continuous improvement as well as the main condition for implementing TQM in educational institutions.
b. Cultural change
TQM requires a cultural change, it is at first difficult to implement, because it requires changing the attitudes of each member organization and working methods are different. In connection with efforts to hold a cultural change for the benefit of TQM. There are three models of change management measures developed by Lewin that includes unfreezing, moving, and refreezing. That is, if leaders want to hold a cultural change (quality) in the organization, the first thing to do is melt the status quo and moving toward a new (a new culture for quality), and if it is permanent again. However, despite being frozen in time of cultural change can happen again in accordance with the demands of the situation and future conditions.
c. Organization to the top side - bottom
The key to the success of TQM culture is the presence of an effective relationship, both internally and externally, between the customer and supplier. All networking and communication both vertically and horizontally needs to be optimized. It is very necessary to establish a climate conducive to the creation of a culture of quality is expected. Therefore, leaders need to create a culture of communication by making use of all media in a harmonious multi-way all the time needed to implement TQM in education. If this can be done and welcome means of this organization is ready to enter the century of communication and information.
d. Maintain relationships with customers
TQM in the agency's primary mission is to meet customer needs. Institutions that excel will always maintain proximity to customers and have an interest (obsession) to quality. Therefore, the leadership of educational institutions need to develop a new paradigm that the original tendency indifferent to the customer, in the future should prioritize and satisfy customers. It is based on the primary determinant of the quality cirri version of TQM that the customer who ultimately determines the quality.

e. Colleagues as customers
The focus of TQM to customers outside kebutuhandari not just meet, but there are colleagues who are also customers. Balance in meeting all internal and external customers must be done in a professional manner. That is, internal customers should not be forgotten but need to be met needs as educational institutions meet the needs of external customers.
2.5 The Implementation TQM in Islamic Education Institution
Educational institutions are its services provide services for their customers, students, parents, students and their sponsors. If the purpose of quality is meeting the needs of customers, then the important thing is who needs and desires to be met? (Sallis, 2006).
At this rate the importance of discussing the idea of the customer in the context of education. For educators, they prefer to use the term clients than customers because more appropriate than a customer. But it could also be said to be ' major ' customers are students, ' second ' customers are parents and ' third ' is the customer who has an important role as the Government and mayarakat. The diversity that makes the whole customer institutions focuses more attention to the wishes of its customers and develop mechanisms to respond to them.
The difference is also required between the internal and external customers of the customer. In TQM, its staff known as internal customers. Internal relations are less good will blocking development of the Institute and will eventually make the external customers suffer. One goal of TQM is to change the institutions which operate into a team that is sincere, without conflict and internal competitions to achieve a purpose which is to satisfy customers
Educational institutions can be said to be successful if it has an effective strategy for the strategies and competitive in increasing the quality of these institutions. Some process is needed to achieve the quality you want , such as:
a. A clear Mission and distingtive
b. A clear Customer Focus
c. Strategies for achieving the mission
d. Involvement of all customers, both internal and external in developing strategy
e. Empowerment of staff by means of eliminating barriers and assist them in contributing the maximum on the institution.
f. Assessment and evaluation of the effectiveness of institutions in achieving the goals that relate to customers
Determine when and where you want to get started is a very difficult task. However, when the task increasingly difficult usually desire to confront the difficulties will be even greater, particularly after facing an unexpected failure. There is no magic spell which can be used to start tasks. A few steps that can be done to begin with (Sallis, 2006) :
1. Leadership and commitment to quality should come from above
The entire cast of quality stressed that without the support of senior managers, it is an initiative of quality will not be able to last a long time. No exception in the world of education. He must also uphold the leadership and commitment to quality. School leaders should also demonstrate a strong commitment and always motivate Deputy Chief and other supervisors in order to be always tried hard and serious.
2. Encouraging customers selectively aim of TQM
This is achieved by constant efforts to meet the needs of both external and internal customers. Customer requirements can be found by identifying their view.
3. Appointing the facilitator of quality
The facilitator should deliver quality development quality directly to the principal. The responsibility of the facilitator is to publicize the program and led the Group of quality control in developing quality programs.
4. Form a governing group
The Group presented the attention and should be a representation of the senior management team. Its role is to direct and encourage quality improvement process. He is the developer of ideas as well as the initiator of the project.
In addition, the educational institutions also need to create a logical and an integral approach in the management of quality, because it will increase the commitment of the desire of the staff. Motivation, expertise and enthusiasm can improve and guarantee the quality. Strengthen the commitment of the staff and make use of them to improve the quality of the main goals and aspects of TQM. Quality system has to be the vehicle to assist staff in resolving their problems without the purpose of controlling them.
No institution can obtain TQM with a straightforward way. TQM has to be brought up on, so harmoniously with the existing culture. TQM has to be developed from the things that are practical in debuah institutions. The quality of already existing in the educational institutions – only build quality that TQM and expanding it. An important thing to do is approach used should be realistic and workable. In addition, the application of integrated quality requires persistence. TQM is not a thing just to introduced in a short time.TQM is a process that slowly with a long-term goal.


CHAPTER III
CLOSING

3.1 Conclusion
We can conclude from the explanation above, that the Total Quality Management (TQM) in education, as quoted by William (2000) and is defined as a set of principles and techniques that emphasize that quality improvement must rely on educational institutions to continuously and sustainably enhance organizational capacity and capability to meet the demands and needs students and community members.
Then, the history of TQM Research quality starts from the discovery of statistical quality control with control charts by Shewhart in 1930 until today. The development of quality in terms of evolution, both from American and Japanese bunch (Nasution, 2001).
The principles: first, focusing on the user / customer (customer focus); second, increase the quality in the process (process improvement); third, involving all components of education (total involvement).
Although there is no definition of the quality of the universally accepted, however the definition of some equation, i.e.:
d. Quality of the covers meet or exceed the expectations of business customers
e. Quality of the products, services, processes and human environment
f. Quality includes the ever-changing conditions
The implementation of TQM in educational institutions also need to create a logical and an integral approach in the management of quality, because it will increase the commitment of the desire of the staff. Motivation, expertise and enthusiasm can improve and guarantee the quality. Strengthen the commitment of the staff and make use of them to improve the quality of the main goals and aspects of TQM. Quality system has to be the vehicle to assist staff in resolving their problems without the purpose of controlling them.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Marno, dkk. 2008. Manajemen dan Kepemimpinan Pendidikan Islam. Bandung : PT Refika Aditama.
Nasution, M. (2001). Manajemen Mutu Terpadu ( Total Quality Management ). Jakarta: Ghalia Indonesia.
Sallis, E. (2006). Total Quality Management In Education. Jogjakarta: IRCiSoD.
Gasperz, V. (2001). Total Quality Management. Jakarta: Gramedia.
http://www.mujtahid.blogspot.tqm-dalam-pendidikan-islam yeah.com
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manajemen_kualitas_total.

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Rahasia tentang ♥ Ayah ♥



Ayah menginginkan anak-anaknya punya lebih banyak kesempatan daripada dirinya, menghadapi lebih sedikit kesulitan, lebih tidak tergantung pada siapapun - dan (tapi) selalu membutuhkan kehadirannya.

Ayah membiarkan kamu menang dalam permainan ketika kamu masih kecil, tapi dia tidak ingin kamu membiarkannya menang ketika kamu sudah besar.

Ayah tidak ada di album foto keluarga, karena dia yang selalu memotret.

Ayah selalu tepat janji! Dia akan memegang janjinya untuk membantu seorang teman, meskipun ajakanmu untuk pergi sebenarnya lebih menyenangkan.

Ayah selalu sedikit sedih ketika melihat anak-anaknya pergi bermain dengan teman-teman mereka karena dia sadar itu adalah akhir masa kecil mereka.

Ayah mulai merencanakan hidupmu ketika tahu bahwa Ibumu hamil (mengandungmu) , tapi begitu kamu lahir, ia mulai membuat revisi.

Ayah membantu membuat impianmu jadi kenyataan bahkan diapun bisa meyakinkanmu untuk melakukan hal-hal yang mustahil, seperti berenang di air setelah ia melepaskannya.

Ayah mungkin tidak tahu jawaban segala sesuatu, tapi ia membantu kamu mencarinya.

Ayah mungkin tampak galak di matamu, tetapi di mata teman-temanmu dia tampak baik dan menyayangi.

Ayah lambat mendapat teman, tapi dia bersahabat seumur hidup

Ayah benar-benar senang membantu seseorang...tapi ia sukar meminta bantuan.

Ayah di dapur. Membuat memasak seperti penjelajahan ilmiah. Dia punya rumus-rumus dan formula racikannya sendiri, dan hanya dia sendiri yang mengerti bagaimana menyelesaikan persamaan-persamaan rumit itu. Dan hasilnya?... .mmmmhhh..."tidak terlalu mengecewakan" ^___________^)b

Ayah mungkin tidak pernah menyentuh sapu ketika masih muda, tapi ia bisa belajar dengan cepat.

Ayah paling tahu bagaimana mendorong ayunan cukup tinggi untuk membuatmu senang tapi tidak takut.

Ayah akan sangat senang membelikanmu makanan selepas ia pulang kerja, walaupun dia tak dapat sedikitpun bagian dari makanan itu

Ayah selalu berdoa agar kita menjadi orang yang sukses di dunia dan akhirat, walaupun kita jarang bahkan jarang sekali mendoakannya

Ayah akan memberimu tempat duduk terbaik dengan mengangkatmu dibahunya, ketika pawai lewat.

Ayah tidak akan memanjakanmu ketika kamu sakit, tapi ia tidak akan tidur semalaman. Siapa tahu kamu membutuhkannya.

Ayah menganggap orang itu harus berdiri sendiri, jadi dia tidak mau memberitahumu apa yang harus kamu lakukan, tapi ia akan menyatakan rasa tidak setujunya.

Ayah percaya orang harus tepat waktu. karena itu dia selalu lebih awal menunggumu.

Ia akan melupakan apa yang ia inginkan, agar bisa memberikan apa yang kamu butuhkan

Ia akan menghentikan apa saja yang sedang ia kerjakan, kalau kamu ingin cerita kepadanya

Ia selalu berfikir dan bekerja keras untuk membayar spp mu tiap semester, meskipun kamu tidak pernah membantunya menghitung berapa banyak kerutan di dahinya

Ayah mengangkat beban berat dari bahumu dengan merengkuhkan tangannya disekeliling beban itu

Ayah akan berkata ,, tanyakan saja pada Ibumu" Ketika ia ingin berkata ,,tidak"

Ayah tidak pernah marah, tetapi mukanya akan sangat merah padam ketika anak gadisnya menginap di rumah teman tanpa izin

Dan diapun hampir tidak pernah marah, kecuali ketika anak lelakinya kepergok menghisap rokok dikamar mandi.

Ayah mengatakan, tidak apa-apa mengambil sedikit resiko asal kamu sanggup kehilangan apa yang kamu harapkan"

Pujian terbaik bagi seorang Ayah adalah ketika dia melihatmu melakukan sesuatu hal yang baik persis seperti caranya

Ayah lebih bangga pada prestasimu, daripada prestasinya sendiri

Ayah hanya akan menyalamimu ketika pertama kali kamu pergi merantau meningalkan rumah, karena kalau dia sampai memeluk mungkin ia tidak akan pernah bisa melepaskannya.

Ayah tidak suka meneteskan air mata ketika kamu lahir dan dia mendengar kamu menangis untuk pertama kalinya, dia sangat senang sampai-sampai keluar air dari matanya (ssst..tapi sekali lagi ini bukan menangis)

Ketika kamu masih kecil, ia bisa memelukmu untuk mengusir rasa takutmu ketika kamu mimpi akan dIbunuh monster

Tapi.....ternyata dia bisa menangis dan tidak bisa tidur sepanjang malam, ketika anak gadis kesayangannya di rantau tak memberi kabar selama hampir satu bulan.

Ayah pernah berkata :" kalau kamu ingin mendapatkan pedang yang tajam dan berkualitas tinggi, janganlah mencarinya dipasar apalagi tukang loak, tapi datang dan pesanlah langsung dari pandai besinya. begitupun dengan cinta dan teman dalam hidupmu, jika kamu ingin mendaptkan cinta sejatimu kelak, maka minta dan pesanlah pada Yang Menciptakannya"

Untuk masa depan anak lelakinya Ayah berpesan: ,, jadilah lebih kuat dan tegar dari padaku, pilihlah Ibu untuk anak-anakmu kelak wanita yang lebih baik dari Ibumu , berikan yang lebih baik untuk menantu dan cucu-cucuku, daripada apa yang yang telah ku beri padamu"

Dan untuk masa depan anak gadisnya Ayah berpesan :" jangan cengeng meski kamu seorang wanita, jadilah selalu bidadari kecilku dan bidadari terbaik untuk Ayah anak-anakmu kelak! Laki-laki yang lebih bisa melindungimu melebihi perlindungan Ayah, tapi jangan pernah kamu gantikan posisi Ayah di hatimu"

Ayah bersikeras, bahwa anak-anakmu kelak harus bersikap lebih baik daripada kamu dulu

Ayah bisa membuatmu percaya diri... karena ia percaya padamu

Ayah tidak mencoba menjadi yang terbaik, tapi dia hanya mencoba melakukan yang terbaik

Dan terpenting adalah... Ayah tidak pernah menghalangimu untuk mencintai Tuhan, bahkan dia akan membentangkan serIbu jalan agar kamu dapat menggapai cintaNya, karena diapun mencintaimu karena cintaNya.

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♥ Terima Kasih Ayah ♥



♥ Mencintaimu Ayah, adalah pelajaran terbaik untuk belajar memahami, dan mengenal kerasnya hidup melalui kelembutan cinta.
♥ Apalah arti hidup ini, jika hanya tertawa happy diatas tangis orangtuanya.
♥ Betapa gelapnya masalalu, keluarga tak akan melupakan kita. Dan mereka selalu hadir menemani saat meniti ke masadepan.
♥ Tak perduli dimanapun engkau berada, keluarga tetap selalu mendoakanmu untuk kebaikan agar dijauhkan dari keburukan.
♥ Pria yang memperlakukan orangtuanya dengan santun, adalah orang yang santun pula memperlakukan keluarga istrinya nanti.
♥ Harapan orangtua sederhana, hanya ingin kita slalu lebih dari mereka.
♥ Saat engkau mempunyai 1000 alasan ke Ayah untuk merantau menuntut ilmu, ayah hanya punya 1 jawaban, "Tanyakan ke Ibumu".
♥ Keluarga adalah motivasi. Demi mereka tak akan ada putus asa. Inilah yang terjadi pada orangtua dalam membesarkan kita.
♥ Hargailah keringat orangtua engkau dengan tidak bermalas-malasan dan menghamburkan uang dari jerih payah mereka.
♥ Saat orangtua menasihati engkau, bukan berarti mereka benar, tetapi itu salah satu bukti bahwa mereka selalu peduli.
♥ Sebelum engkau mengeluh kekurangan orangtuamu, sadarilah banyak orang yang rindu pada orangtuanya di surga.
♥ Saat engkau mendapati kesuksesan terbesar nanti, ingatlah bimbingan orangtuamu dari hal-hal kecil atas kekuranganmu.
♥ Orangtua engkau sudah cukup banyak memberi kebahagiaan, janganlah pula engkau memperbanyak beri kekecewaan pada mereka.
♥ Terimakasih wahai Ayah dan engkau Ibu, atas kekurangan kami kalian jadikan itu menjadi sebuah kelebihan ♥ .
♥ Atas cinta mereka yang tak pernah dapat aku balas, Tuhan ijinkanlah aku memohon "ampunkanlah dosa orangtuaku".
♥ Jika engkau memang mencintai orangtuamu, hargailah jerih payahnya dan doakanlah kebaikan bagi mereka.
♥ Tiada paling indah ketika bersama keluarga. Segala gundah lepas, lelah pun punah, yang ada bahagia, gembira dan ceria.
♥ "Karena rindu kepada Ibumu adalah alasan aku menangis mengingat hal-hal dulu" ucap Ayah.
♥ Adakah yang lebih tangis, dari kehilangan seorang Ayah dan Ibu? Sayangi mereka selagi wujudnya masih bisa engkau sentuh.
♥ Apa yang paling nista di dunia ini? Adalah ketika membuat hati orangtuamu terluka, karenamu.
♥ Setiap hari aku slalu belajar sepertimu Ayah, bagaimana engkau bersabar, berkeringat mengais rejeki demi kami.
♥ Keluarga, adalah sahabat sejati yang paling sejati dalam keadaan apapun.
♥ Terima Kasih Ayah telah engkau tanamkan padaku untuk capai keberhasilan tanpa melupakan bahwa setiap orang pasti pernah mengalami kegagalan.
♥ Wanita, dicipta tuk menyempurnakan. Ia adalah orang yang ada dibalik kesuksesan lelaki yang dicintainya.
♥ Sebagai lelaki, buatlah perempuanmu merasa aman dan tenang, karena dia penyempurnaanmu.
♥ Sebagai lelaki, jadilah pemimpin yang bijak.
♥ Airmata akan banyak mengajarkan kamu untuk tetap bersyukur. Renungkanlah dari apa yang kamu miliki saat ini.
♥ Akan berarti tetesan airmata, saat kamu merasakan kebahagiaan yang hakiki daripada menangisi kesedihan yang tak berarti.
♥ Belajarlah Maha Hawa seperti Ibu kamu. Dia wanita HEBAT yang kamu miliki.
♥ Tuhan menciptakan waktu yang tak kembali, agar kamu menghargai kehidupan hari ini, bukan kemarin, bukan juga esok.
♥ Ketika orangtuamu tersenyum karena kamu adalah alasannya, itu hal yang begitu indah dalam hidup ini.
♥ Tak perlu menjadi oranglain agar kamu disukai orang. Ketahuilah, ada banyak orang yang ingin menjadi dirimu — Beyourself.
♥ Saat Ayah menasehatimu dengan caranya, percayalah, sesungguhnya dia sedang memperbaiki kelemahanmu yang tak kamu sadari.
♥ Karena cinta, peluklah Ibumu saat wajahnya masih bisa kamu lihat saat ini.
♥ Ketegasan seorang Ayah bukan semata untuk mengatur hidupmu. Dia hanya menginginkan suatu kebaikan berada dalam hidupmu.
♥ TerimakasihAyah, telah engkau tanamkan padaku untuk mencapai keberhasilan tanpa harus melupakan bahwa setiap orang pasti pernah mengalami kegagalan.
♥ Ladies, hidup adalah pilihan. Pilihlah seseorang yg mampu mengusap airmata kamu ketika sedih dan membahagiakanmu hingga nanti.
♥ Sadar itu sering datang terakhir. Betapa berartinya seseorang ketika dia telah pergi dari sisi ini, dari dunia ini.
♥ Bahagia itu tak slalu memiliki hal yang terbaik, kita hanya berusaha menjadikannya yang terbaik dari hal-hal yang kecil dan sederhana.
♥ Belajar untuk berhenti berpura-pura, adalah salah satu cara agar kamu bisa menghargai diri kamu sendiri.
♥ Kesedihan itu bukan akhir segalanya. Sekalipun kamu berasa berat, percaya dan yakin bahwa hidup itu slalu tumbuh sesuatu yang baru.
♥ Apabila Tuhan memberikan kamu sebuah masalah, janganlah mengeluh, karena DIA percaya bahwa kamu MAMPU melewati bebanmu.
♥ Belajar untuk berhenti berpura-pura adalah salah satu cara, agar kamu bisa menghargai diri kamu sendiri.
♥ Jangan menyerah pada kesedihan, hadapi, selesaikan dan sertakan Tuhan. Percayakan bahwa bahagia itu slalu dalam kamu.
♥ Jangan membalas setiap kritik dari seseorang terhadap kamu, jadikanlah ia sebagai intropeksi untuk memperbaiki diri.
♥ Apabila kamu sudah melalukan sesuatu yang TERBAIK melalui usaha dan doa, berserahlah kepada Tuhan, biarkan DIA yang menentukan. Do the BEST and let GOD do the Rest.
♥ Kebahagiaan kamu yang hakiki itu sangat mudah diperoleh, cukup untuk tidak memaksa berlebihan dan miliki secukupnya.
♥ Ketika seseorang marah dan kamu tetap lembut, ia adalah kemenangan paling mutlak untuk kamu.
♥ #FaktanyaLelaki yang menyayangi Ibunya dan ia mencintai kamu percayalah ia akan memegang erat tangan kamu ketika tua nanti seperti ia memegang tangan Ibunya dulu.
♥ Ketika seseorang meninggalkan kamu, ikhlaskan semua pengorbanan, percayalah Tuhan akan menggantikannya dengan yang lebih baik.
♥ Saat Ayah berkata “TIDAK” untuk menunaikan sesuatu permintaan dari kamu, percayalah pada ahirnya kamu akan mengerti.
♥ Seorang Ayah paling tahu bagaimana cara mendorong ayunan yang cukup tinggi untuk membuatmu senang dan kamu tidak akan takut.
♥ Seorang Ayah akan melupakan apa yang ia inginkan, agar bisa memberikan apa yang kamu butuhkan.
♥ Terimakasih Istriku, atas pekerjaan malaikat sebagai seorang istri juga seorang Ibu dari anak-anak kita. Tanpamu dirumah, seakan gelap diantara terik matahari.
♥ Yang Ayah wariskan kepada anak-anaknya bukan kata-kata atau kekayaan, tetapi sesuatu yang tak terucapkan yaitu teladan sebagai seorang pria dan teladan sebagai seorang Ayah ~ Will Rogers.
♥ #bahagia itu cukup sederhana, saling berbagi, bebaskan hati dari rasa benci dan mudahkan dalam memaafkan.
♥ Tuhan adalah Sang Maha Mendengar juga Maha Melihat. Dia bisa melihat atas usaha yang kita lakukan dan Dia juga bisa Mendengar atas apa yang kita ucapkan.
♥ Katanya cowok itu gampang banget buat mutusin cewek, ternyata enggak juga kok, malah cowok itu susah banget buat mutusin cewek. Buktinya cintanya Ayah terhadap Ibu tak pernah putus.
♥ Sudahkah kamu (Wanita) mencintainya atas segala kekurangannya? Seperti Ibu kamu mencintai segala kekurangan Ayah kamu. #KarenaCinta tidak akan bisa mencari alasan yang dibenci atas kekurangan terhadap orang yang paling dicintai.
♥ Sudahkah kamu (Cewek) mencintainya seperti Ibu kamu mencintai Ayah kamu? Sudahkah kamu (Cowok) mencintainya seperti Ayah kamu mencintai Ibu kamu? Cinta bukan untuk dimiliki, ia dititipkan di hati untuk dijaga.
♥ #TerimakasihAyah tlah engkau ajarkan aku menjadi seorang yang siap jalani kerasnya hidup tanpa melupakan kelembutan hati.
♥ Dear Sahabat, Jika kamu masih mempunyai orang tua, bersyukurlah. Cintailah mereka sebagaimana kamu mencintai diri kamu sendiri, Sebab karena cinta dan doa mereka untuk kamu slalu di jabah oleh Tuhan.
♥ Percayalah, semua yang Ayah lakukan, supaya kelak kamu memiliki pengalaman lebih apa yang tidak pernah ayah dapatkan.
♥ You are my sunshine, my only sunshine, you make me happy when skies are grey.
♥ Ayah membantu membuat impian kamu menjadi kenyataan bahkan dia pun bisa meyakinkan kamu untuk melakukan hal-hal yang mustahil, seperti berenang di air setelah ia melepaskannya.
♥ Sebuah nasehat seorang Ayah teruntuk putri tercinta : Jadilah manusia suci dan satu hati karena lapar menerima sedekah dan mati dalam kemiskinan adalah seribu kali lebih mudah dari pada kehinaan dan tidak memiliki perasaan.
♥ Jika saat ini Sang Ayah masih menemani jalani hidup ini, jangan pernah sia-siakan kesempatan untuk membuat hatinya merasa tersanjung. Bila Sang Ayah telah tiada, jangan putuskan tali silaturahmi yang telah dirintisnya, doakanlah agar Tuhan selalu menjaganya dengan sebaik-baiknya, Amin.
♥ Saat Ayah dan Ibu bilang “Rindu sekali denganmu Nak” percayalah, bahkan langit pun tak akan mampu menjadi batas rindunya kepadamu.


QUOTED from http://www.facebook.com/TerimakasihAyah

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