One thing that is very significant in improving the performance challenges competition is through continuous improvement in business activity focused on consumers, including the overall organization and emphasis on flexibility and quality. Therefore, the quality and management associated with improvements sustained by many companies in order to encourage increased market competition and won. Companies that do not
manage the changes will be missed.
In line with the organizational paradigm shift from 'market oriented' to
'Resources-oriented', then one way that can be taken by the Company is to fix their own resources to survive in Long-term competition. One proper way is to implementing Total Quality Management (Muluk, 2003: 3).
Total Quality Management (TQM) is a new paradigm in running a business that seeks to maximize the competitiveness of organizations through: focus on consumer satisfaction, involvement of all employees, and repair continuously for the quality of products, services, people, processes and organizational environment (Krajewski, Lee, and Ritzman (1999: 242).
Some experts argue that the success or failure TQM implementation is largely influenced by cultural factors (Kekale, 1999:1; Parncharoen, Girardi, and Entrekin, 2005:597; Jabnoun and Sedrani, 2005:8; Kujala and Ullarank, 2004:1), because TQM is essentially a program organizational change that requires a transformation of organizational culture, processes, and beliefs (Parncharoen, Girardi, and Entrekin, 2005).
1.2 Problem Formulation
1. What is the definition of Total Quality Management?
2. How was the history of Total Quality Management?
3. What are the theories of Total Quality Management?
4. What are the principles of Total Quality Management?
5. How the implementation of Total Quality Management in Islamic Education Institution?
1. Knowing the definition of Total Quality Management
2. Knowing the history of Total Quality Management
3. Knowing the theories of Total Quality Management
4. Knowing the principles of Total Quality Management
5. Knowing the implementation of Total Quality Management in Islamic Education Institution
2.1 The Definition of Total Quality Management
Quality management is more popular with the term TQM is a way of improving the performance of work are continually in every level of operations or processes in each functional area of an organization to use all human resources and capital available. While Ross in William Mantja (2000) defines TQM as the integration of all functions and processes within the organization to acquire and achieve improvement and increased quality of goods as sustainable products and services. The ultimate goal is customer satisfaction or customer.
So, Total Quality Management (TQM) in education, as quoted by William (2000) and is defined as a set of principles and techniques that emphasize that quality improvement must rely on educational institutions to continuously and sustainably enhance organizational capacity and capability to meet the demands and needs students and community members.
From the definition above, we can underline that the Quality Management (MPM) is contained effort: 1. Controlling processes that take place in educational institutions or schools both curricular and administration, 2. Involves the process of diagnosis, 3. Quality improvement should be based on data and facts both qualitative and quantitative, 4. Quality improvement must be continuous and ongoing, 5. Improved quality must empower and involve all the elements that exist in educational institutions, and 6. Quality improvement which states that schools can provide the satisfaction of students, parents and the community (Hadi, 2001).
Quality improvement management (MPM) or TQM is a philosophy of continuous quality improvement and can be used as a practical tool by educational institutions in meeting the needs, desires, and expectations of current and future customers. TQM is also an activity to do everything correctly at all times. It is based on these realities better than on fixing the error. Therefore, it is very appropriate if the primary purpose of TQM in education is improving the quality of education continuously.
According to Murgatroyd & Morgan (1994:66) the successful implementation of TQM in educational institutions is based on five key words: vision (vision), strategies and objectives (strategy and goals), team (teams), and tools (tools) as well as the Three Cs of TQM (3Cs.), namely culture (culture), commitment (commitment), and communication (communication).
The main objective of TQM in education is to improve the quality of education in a sustainable, continuous, and integrated. Efforts to improve the quality of education that is intended not once, but rather addressed by improving the quality of education in each component.
2.2 The History of Total Quality Management
Research quality starts from the discovery of statistical quality control with control charts by Shewhart in 1930 until today. The development of quality in terms of evolution, both from American and Japanese bunch (Nasution, 2001).
According to Garvin, the quality as a concept has long been recognized, but its emergence as a new management function occurred lately. He divided the modern approach to quality into the fourth era of the quality of the inspection, a statistical quality control, quality assurance and quality management strategy.
This approach emerged in the early 19th century. Quality control includes several models of the uniform of a product to measure actual performance. Such uniformity is possible in manufacturing that comes with development tools designed to ensure the operation of the machines in order to produce identical parts that are interchangeable. Inspection of the output can be done directly or with the help of tools.
b. The Quality Control Statistics
The second approach is a statistical quality control. In 1931 WA Shewhart publish quality movement that uses a scientific approach. He stated that the variability is a reality in the world of industry and this can be understood using the principles of probability and statistics. Its main contribution is a process control chart to plot the value of production to determine whether the value falls within the desired range.
c. Quality Assurance
In this era there is a development of four important new concept of quality assurance that is the cost of quality, integrated quality control (TQC total quality control =), reliability engineering and zero defects. The cost of quality is a term to answer the question "how much quality is enough? "According to Juran, the cost to achieve a certain quality can be divided into costs that can be avoided den costs that can not be avoided. Costs that can not be avoided is the cost associated with inspection and quality control measures designed to avoid any damage. Costs that can be avoided is the cost of product failures include faulty materials, working hours are used for rework and repair, complaints processing, and financial losses due to a disappointed customer. Management implication is that the additional expenditure for the improvement of quality can be justified as long as the cost of failure is still high.
A Brief History of Development of TQM
The evolution of total quality movement started from the period of study time and motion by Mr. Scientific Management, Frederick Winston Taylor in the 1920's decade.
The most fundamental aspect of scientific management is the separation between planning and execution. Although the division of tasks has led to major improvements in productivity, the actual concept of the division of the task has been set aside old concepts of expertise / skills, where highly skilled individuals who do all the work required to produce a quality product. Taylor's scientific management to overcome this by making the task of planning and task management workforce (Nasution, 2001).
Along with the increasing volume and complexity of manufacturing, quality is also becoming increasingly difficult. The volume and complexity of encouraging the emergence of quality engineering in the 1920s and reliability engineering in the year 2950's. Quality engineering itself encourage the use of statistical methods in quality control that eventually leads to the concept of control charts and statistical process control. Both of these concepts is a fundamental aspect of total quality management.
Although the concept of TQM is heavily influenced by developments in Japan, but can not be stated that TQM 'Made in Japan'. This is because many aspects of TQM are sourced from the United States, including the following :
1. Scientific Management
2. Group Dynamics
3. Training and Development
4. Achievement motivation
5. Involvement of employees
6. System socio technical
7. Organizational Development
8. Organizational culture
9. The new leadership theory
10. The concept lingking-pin
11. Strategic planning
2.3 The Theories of Total Quality Management
In defining the quality of the product, there are five experts in quality management integrated with different opinions but that is the same (Nasution, 2001).
1. According to Juran, the product quality is use of the product conformity (finess for use) to meet the needs and customer satisfaction. The fit of the use of it based on the five characteristics :
a. Technology, i.e. the strength and durability
b. psychological, i.e. taste or status
c. Time, i.e. reliability
d. Contractual, i.e. the existence of guarantee
e. Ethics, manners, hospitable and honest
2. According to Crosby, quality is conformance to compliance with the requirement that is presupposed or standardised. A product has quality if in accordance with the prescribed quality standards. Standard quality include raw materials, production processes, and the finished product.
3. According to Deming, quality is conformance to the requirements of the market. Juran defines quality as if the fitness for use and Crosby as conformance to requirement, the Deming quality as defined by the needs of the market or the suitability of the consumer. The company should really be able to understand what is required of a consumer product that will be generated.
4. According to the Feigenbaum, quality is customer satisfaction completely (full customer satisfaction). A product is said to be qualified if can give entirely satisfaction to consumers, i.e. in accordance with what is expected of a consumer product
5. According to Garvin Brown, dynamic quality is a condition that is associated with a product, human/labor, processes and tasks, as well as environments that meet or exceed customer expectations or consumers. Tastes or expectations of consumers on an ever-changing products so that the quality of the product must also be changed or adjusted.
Although there is no definition of the quality of the universally accepted, however the definition of some equation, i.e.:
a. Quality of the covers meet or exceed the expectations of business customers
b. Quality of the products, services, processes and human environment
c. Quality includes the ever-changing conditions
2.4 The Principles of Total Quality Management
Achievement of the above objective can be realized when using the following principles: first, focusing on the user / customer (customer focus); second, increase the quality in the process (process improvement); third, involving all components of education (total involvement).
Focusing on the user refers to any increase in the quality of education must be based on the desires, needs and expectations of educational users (internal & external). This concept requires field data collection and analysis properly so it is necessary to bring the two sides.
Improving the quality of the process refers to the continuous improvement (continuous) which is built on the basis of: the work will produce a series of interrelated stages and activities that will ultimately result in the output (output). In carrying out the improvement of the quality of education there is the method known as "Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle".
Involvement of total / full is the core concept of TQM. Through the total involvement, the idea of getting loyal customers is reflected in the organization. To build a loyal employees and suppliers as well. Putting total involvement and combine the efforts of everyone: managers, workers, and suppliers as partners in a mutually beneficial relationship (Tenner & DeToro, 1995: 157). The third principle of TQM can be explained in detail is as follows:
a. Focus on the Customer (Customer Focuss))
Key to the success of a TQM culture of effective relationships, both internally and externally, between the customer and supplier. All networking and communication both vertically and horizontally needs to be optimized. It is very necessary to establish a climate conducive to the creation of a culture of quality is expected. Therefore, leaders need to create a culture of communication by making use of all media in a harmonious multi-way all the time needed to implement TQM in education. If this can be done and welcome means of this organization is ready to enter the century of communication and information..
There are some that must be considered by the institution of such customers, namely:
1. Really understand what the customer wants
2. Paying attention to customer satisfaction
3. Understanding customer expectations by answering four key questions, namely:
a) What kind of product or service that customers expect
b) Quality level is how it takes to satisfy their expectations
c) What exactly is the importance of each characteristic service or product
d) How satisfied customers with quality at a level now.
One form focuses on the customer is to provide a quality service. Hallmark of a quality service is what has allowed our customers to feel that they have done a fair exchange and receive value. It can be seen on the services that are:
1. Faster, better, cheaper
2. Eight dimensions of quality, namely:
a) Performance, operating characteristics of a product; b) Features, which is prominent characteristics, features, c) Reliability (reliability); d) Confarmance (suitability); e) Durability (resistance, lifetime); f) serviceability (power / level of service); g) Aesthetics; h) the perceived quality.
3. Ten determinants of service quality, namely:
a) Reliability (reliable power); b) Responsiveness (responsiveness); c) Access: d) Caurtesy (courtesy); e) Communication; f) Credibility; g) Security (security); h) Competence; i) Understand the customer; j) Real.
4. Five criteria "Rater" namely:
a) Reability; b) Insurance c) True; d) Empathy; e) Responsiveness.
Because the focus of quality is customer satisfaction, it is necessary to understand the components related to customer satisfaction. Basically, customer satisfaction can be defined simply, is a state in which the needs, desires, and customer expectations can be met through the products are consumed.
Customer satisfaction is an important factor in TQM. Satisfaction is the feeling of pleasure or disappointment that comes from a comparison between the impression of the performance (or outcome of a product and its expectations).
Departing from the above definition of satisfaction is a function of the impression the impression of performance and expectations. If performance is below expectations, the customer is not satisfied. If performance meets expectations, the customer is satisfied. If performance exceeds expectations, customers are very satisfied or pleased.
b. Improvement Process (Process Improvement)
Improving the quality of the process refers to the continuous improvement that is built on the basis of: the work will produce a series of stages and the interrelation of the activities that will eventually produce the output.
In the management process, there are six important elements in the management of educational institutions, among others: 1. Ownership, 2. Planning, 3. Control, 4. Measurement, 5. Improvement, and 6. Optimisation. In the process of development known six stages to the process of development, namely: 1. Limiting the problem, 2. Identify and document the process, 3. Performance measurement, 4. Understanding the reasons why, 5. Develop and test ideas, 6. Determination of the solution and evaluate (Tenner & DeToro, 1992:99-100). Six stages of development process models to introduce a systematic approach to using quality management in several types of processes. It can be applied to multiple pengoprasian information systems, marketing, finance, administration, R & D, service, etc.. It can also be applied to several systems that exchange information with customers, the system used to produce products and services, and systems that create a working environment.
c. Total Involvement
The inclusion of all components of an active educational leadership starts from the leader / senior management (rector) up to the faculty / staff. They must be involved to achieve a competitive advantage in a broad user environment. Faculty / staff at all levels are empowered to improve the quality of graduates together in new and flexible work structures to solve problems, improve the educational process and satisfy the users.
There are elements of support to achieve a sustainable improvement of education quality, namely: 1. Leadership, 2. Education and training, 3. Support structure, 4. Communication, 5. The award, 6. Measurement (Tenner & DeToro, 1992:32).
Leadership refers to the senior management / leadership of PTI which should lead this effort through to the relevant examples. For example, use of tools, languages, data, and recommends the concept of integrated quality management (TQM). When TQM is used as the key of management process, the role of rector as advisors, instructors, and leaders should not be ignored. That is, he must understand the objectives, principles and elements of TQM and is able to support continuous care to achieve the expected improvement of education quality.
The success of TQM programs need to be measured. Measure used is nothing but the satisfaction of customers outside the organization. The data should be collected in a systematic and systemic. The data collected need to be prepared to see their satisfaction at once to find a variety of issues that arise at the same time as the basis for continuous improvement through TQM program..
William (2000) explains that the total involvement there are some that must be considered or called supporting components include: customer, leadership, teams, processes, and structures. Medium according to Tenner & DeToro (1992) allegedly total means all members in one organanisasi / institutions ranging from superiors to subordinates involved in the development process. In this case there are three groups involved, namely leadership, employees and suppliers. A leader must be able to: 1. Develop a vision for the organization that might arouse, 2. Empowering the workforce / employees in the organization, 3. Build a reliable team work, 4. Build confidence in others, 5. Determining a quality supplier, 6. Relationships with other parties for mutual benefit.
2.4.1 The Characteristics of TQM in Education
According Gandem in Supriyanto (1999:42) that the characteristics of TQM is the indication is shown by: 1. High commitment from all levels of organization (the supreme leader until the employee is the lowest), 2. Organizations that steady, 3. Motivation and discipline. Therefore, organizations that implement TQM can be distinguished precisely by other organizations based on these characteristics.
Based on these characteristics then there are several requirements that must be met for programs that TQM can be successfully carried through properly. Requirements that must be met if TQM is implemented in educational institutions are:
a. Increased sustainable
TQM was sharpened by a number of projects on a small scale. TQM philosophy is to include a large scale, but its practical implementation in a small scale. Intervention rather drastic change in the meaning of TQM. Therefore, the focus of continuous improvement as well as the main condition for implementing TQM in educational institutions.
b. Cultural change
TQM requires a cultural change, it is at first difficult to implement, because it requires changing the attitudes of each member organization and working methods are different. In connection with efforts to hold a cultural change for the benefit of TQM. There are three models of change management measures developed by Lewin that includes unfreezing, moving, and refreezing. That is, if leaders want to hold a cultural change (quality) in the organization, the first thing to do is melt the status quo and moving toward a new (a new culture for quality), and if it is permanent again. However, despite being frozen in time of cultural change can happen again in accordance with the demands of the situation and future conditions.
c. Organization to the top side - bottom
The key to the success of TQM culture is the presence of an effective relationship, both internally and externally, between the customer and supplier. All networking and communication both vertically and horizontally needs to be optimized. It is very necessary to establish a climate conducive to the creation of a culture of quality is expected. Therefore, leaders need to create a culture of communication by making use of all media in a harmonious multi-way all the time needed to implement TQM in education. If this can be done and welcome means of this organization is ready to enter the century of communication and information.
d. Maintain relationships with customers
TQM in the agency's primary mission is to meet customer needs. Institutions that excel will always maintain proximity to customers and have an interest (obsession) to quality. Therefore, the leadership of educational institutions need to develop a new paradigm that the original tendency indifferent to the customer, in the future should prioritize and satisfy customers. It is based on the primary determinant of the quality cirri version of TQM that the customer who ultimately determines the quality.
e. Colleagues as customers
The focus of TQM to customers outside kebutuhandari not just meet, but there are colleagues who are also customers. Balance in meeting all internal and external customers must be done in a professional manner. That is, internal customers should not be forgotten but need to be met needs as educational institutions meet the needs of external customers.
2.5 The Implementation TQM in Islamic Education Institution
Educational institutions are its services provide services for their customers, students, parents, students and their sponsors. If the purpose of quality is meeting the needs of customers, then the important thing is who needs and desires to be met? (Sallis, 2006).
At this rate the importance of discussing the idea of the customer in the context of education. For educators, they prefer to use the term clients than customers because more appropriate than a customer. But it could also be said to be ' major ' customers are students, ' second ' customers are parents and ' third ' is the customer who has an important role as the Government and mayarakat. The diversity that makes the whole customer institutions focuses more attention to the wishes of its customers and develop mechanisms to respond to them.
The difference is also required between the internal and external customers of the customer. In TQM, its staff known as internal customers. Internal relations are less good will blocking development of the Institute and will eventually make the external customers suffer. One goal of TQM is to change the institutions which operate into a team that is sincere, without conflict and internal competitions to achieve a purpose which is to satisfy customers
Educational institutions can be said to be successful if it has an effective strategy for the strategies and competitive in increasing the quality of these institutions. Some process is needed to achieve the quality you want , such as:
a. A clear Mission and distingtive
b. A clear Customer Focus
c. Strategies for achieving the mission
d. Involvement of all customers, both internal and external in developing strategy
e. Empowerment of staff by means of eliminating barriers and assist them in contributing the maximum on the institution.
f. Assessment and evaluation of the effectiveness of institutions in achieving the goals that relate to customers
Determine when and where you want to get started is a very difficult task. However, when the task increasingly difficult usually desire to confront the difficulties will be even greater, particularly after facing an unexpected failure. There is no magic spell which can be used to start tasks. A few steps that can be done to begin with (Sallis, 2006) :
1. Leadership and commitment to quality should come from above
The entire cast of quality stressed that without the support of senior managers, it is an initiative of quality will not be able to last a long time. No exception in the world of education. He must also uphold the leadership and commitment to quality. School leaders should also demonstrate a strong commitment and always motivate Deputy Chief and other supervisors in order to be always tried hard and serious.
2. Encouraging customers selectively aim of TQM
This is achieved by constant efforts to meet the needs of both external and internal customers. Customer requirements can be found by identifying their view.
3. Appointing the facilitator of quality
The facilitator should deliver quality development quality directly to the principal. The responsibility of the facilitator is to publicize the program and led the Group of quality control in developing quality programs.
4. Form a governing group
The Group presented the attention and should be a representation of the senior management team. Its role is to direct and encourage quality improvement process. He is the developer of ideas as well as the initiator of the project.
In addition, the educational institutions also need to create a logical and an integral approach in the management of quality, because it will increase the commitment of the desire of the staff. Motivation, expertise and enthusiasm can improve and guarantee the quality. Strengthen the commitment of the staff and make use of them to improve the quality of the main goals and aspects of TQM. Quality system has to be the vehicle to assist staff in resolving their problems without the purpose of controlling them.
No institution can obtain TQM with a straightforward way. TQM has to be brought up on, so harmoniously with the existing culture. TQM has to be developed from the things that are practical in debuah institutions. The quality of already existing in the educational institutions – only build quality that TQM and expanding it. An important thing to do is approach used should be realistic and workable. In addition, the application of integrated quality requires persistence. TQM is not a thing just to introduced in a short time.TQM is a process that slowly with a long-term goal.
We can conclude from the explanation above, that the Total Quality Management (TQM) in education, as quoted by William (2000) and is defined as a set of principles and techniques that emphasize that quality improvement must rely on educational institutions to continuously and sustainably enhance organizational capacity and capability to meet the demands and needs students and community members.
Then, the history of TQM Research quality starts from the discovery of statistical quality control with control charts by Shewhart in 1930 until today. The development of quality in terms of evolution, both from American and Japanese bunch (Nasution, 2001).
The principles: first, focusing on the user / customer (customer focus); second, increase the quality in the process (process improvement); third, involving all components of education (total involvement).
Although there is no definition of the quality of the universally accepted, however the definition of some equation, i.e.:
d. Quality of the covers meet or exceed the expectations of business customers
e. Quality of the products, services, processes and human environment
f. Quality includes the ever-changing conditions
The implementation of TQM in educational institutions also need to create a logical and an integral approach in the management of quality, because it will increase the commitment of the desire of the staff. Motivation, expertise and enthusiasm can improve and guarantee the quality. Strengthen the commitment of the staff and make use of them to improve the quality of the main goals and aspects of TQM. Quality system has to be the vehicle to assist staff in resolving their problems without the purpose of controlling them.
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Sallis, E. (2006). Total Quality Management In Education. Jogjakarta: IRCiSoD.
Gasperz, V. (2001). Total Quality Management. Jakarta: Gramedia.